A Price for Democracy? : Religious Legislation and Religious Discrimination in Post-Soeharto Indonesia

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Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. 2020, 56(1), pp. 23-42. ISSN 0007-4918. eISSN 1472-7234. Available under: doi: 10.1080/00074918.2019.1661354
Zusammenfassung

Various studies have expressed concerns about the decline of religious freedom in Indonesia. These studies suffer from three limitations. First, they inadequately differentiate between various aspects of state–religion relations. Second, they are largely inward looking, overlooking how Indonesia compares with other countries in the world, especially other Muslim countries. Third, they do not explicitly test whether this decline in religious freedom was triggered by the downfall of Soeharto and the more open political and social space that ensued. Applying a synthetic control method to a global data set, the present study shows that Indonesia’s level of state discrimination against religious minorities has not changed much since 1998. The country’s levels of social discrimination and religious legislation, on the other hand, have increased significantly. This suggests that efforts to improve religious freedom in Indonesia should focus on tackling the proliferation of religious bylaws and discrimination by social groups. Berbagai studi telah mengemukakan keprihatinan akan menurunnya kebebasan beragama di Indonesia. Namun, studi-studi ini memiliki tiga keterbatasan. Pertama, mereka tidak cukup melakukan differensiasi atas berbagai aspek hubungan negara-agama. Kedua, mereka berorientasi internal, mengabaikan perbandingan Indonesia dengan negara-negara lain di dunia, khususnya negeri berpenduduk Muslim lainnya. Ketiga, mereka tidak secara eksplisit menguji apakah penurunan pada kebebasan beragama dipicu oleh jatuhnya Soeharto dan semakin terbukanya ruang sosial dan politis yang mengikutinya. Dengan menerapkan metode kendali sintetis pada set data global, studi ini menunjukkan bahwa tingkat diskriminasi oleh negara atas kaum agama minoritas di Indonesia sesungguhnya tidak berubah sejak 1998. Sebaliknya, tingkat diskriminasi sosial dan legislasi agama naik secara signifikan. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa upaya-upaya untuk meningkatkan kebebasan beragama seharusnya berfokus pada penanganan penyebaran aturan-aturan setempat dan diskriminasi oleh kelompok sosial.

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Fachgebiet (DDC)
320 Politik
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religious freedom, Islam and democracy, state–religion separation
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ISO 690SUMAKTOYO, Nathanael Gratias, 2020. A Price for Democracy? : Religious Legislation and Religious Discrimination in Post-Soeharto Indonesia. In: Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. 2020, 56(1), pp. 23-42. ISSN 0007-4918. eISSN 1472-7234. Available under: doi: 10.1080/00074918.2019.1661354
BibTex
@article{Sumaktoyo2020Price-54169,
  year={2020},
  doi={10.1080/00074918.2019.1661354},
  title={A Price for Democracy? : Religious Legislation and Religious Discrimination in Post-Soeharto Indonesia},
  number={1},
  volume={56},
  issn={0007-4918},
  journal={Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies},
  pages={23--42},
  author={Sumaktoyo, Nathanael Gratias}
}
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