Clinically practical pharmacometrics computer model to evaluate and personalize pharmacotherapy in pediatric rare diseases: application to Graves' disease

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Objectives: Graves' disease (GD) with onset in childhood or adolescence is a rare disease (ORPHA:525731). Current pharmacotherapeutic approaches use antithyroid drugs, such as carbimazole, as monotherapy or in combination with thyroxine hormone substitutes, such as levothyroxine, as block-and-replace therapy to normalize thyroid function and improve patients' quality of life. However, in the context of fluctuating disease activity, especially during puberty, a considerable proportion of pediatric patients with GD is suffering from thyroid hormone concentrations outside the therapeutic reference ranges. Our main goal was to develop a clinically practical pharmacometrics computer model that characterizes and predicts individual disease activity in children with various severity of GD under pharmacotherapy.

Methods: Retrospectively collected clinical data from children and adolescents with GD under up to two years of treatment at four different pediatric hospitals in Switzerland were analyzed. Development of the pharmacometrics computer model is based on the non-linear mixed effects approach accounting for inter-individual variability and incorporating individual patient characteristics. Disease severity groups were defined based on free thyroxine (FT4) measurements at diagnosis.

Results: Data from 44 children with GD (75% female, median age 11 years, 62% receiving monotherapy) were analyzed. FT4 measurements were collected in 13, 15, and 16 pediatric patients with mild, moderate, or severe GD, with a median FT4 at diagnosis of 59.9 pmol/l (IQR 48.4, 76.8), and a total of 494 FT4 measurements during a median follow-up of 1.89 years (IQR 1.69, 1.97). We observed no notable difference between severity groups in terms of patient characteristics, daily carbimazole starting doses, and patient years. The final pharmacometrics computer model was developed based on FT4 measurements and on carbimazole or on carbimazole and levothyroxine doses involving two clinically relevant covariate effects: age at diagnosis and disease severity.

Discussion: We present a tailored pharmacometrics computer model that is able to describe individual FT4 dynamics under both, carbimazole monotherapy and carbimazole/levothyroxine block-and-replace therapy accounting for inter-individual disease progression and treatment response in children and adolescents with GD. Such clinically practical and predictive computer model has the potential to facilitate and enhance personalized pharmacotherapy in pediatric GD, reducing over- and underdosing and avoiding negative short- and long-term consequences. Prospective randomized validation trials are warranted to further validate and fine-tune computer-supported personalized dosing in pediatric GD and other rare pediatric diseases.

Zusammenfassung in einer weiteren Sprache
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510 Mathematik
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Graves’ disease (GD), pediatric rare diseases, hyperthyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, carbimazole monotherapy, block-and-replace therapy, mathematical model, pharmacometrics model
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ISO 690STEFFENS, Britta, Gilbert KOCH, Pascal GÄCHTER, Fabien CLAUDE, Verena GOTTA, Freya BACHMANN, Johannes SCHROPP, Marco JANNER, Gabor SZINNAI, Marc PFISTER, 2023. Clinically practical pharmacometrics computer model to evaluate and personalize pharmacotherapy in pediatric rare diseases: application to Graves' disease. In: Frontiers in Medicine. Frontiers. 2023, 10, 1099470. eISSN 2296-858X. Available under: doi: 10.3389/fmed.2023.1099470
BibTex
@article{Steffens2023-05-03Clini-67675,
  year={2023},
  doi={10.3389/fmed.2023.1099470},
  title={Clinically practical pharmacometrics computer model to evaluate and personalize pharmacotherapy in pediatric rare diseases: application to Graves' disease},
  volume={10},
  journal={Frontiers in Medicine},
  author={Steffens, Britta and Koch, Gilbert and Gächter, Pascal and Claude, Fabien and Gotta, Verena and Bachmann, Freya and Schropp, Johannes and Janner, Marco and Szinnai, Gabor and Pfister, Marc},
  note={DFG, project No. SCHR 692/3-1 Article Number: 1099470}
}
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Methods: Retrospectively collected clinical data from children and adolescents with GD under up to two years of treatment at four different pediatric hospitals in Switzerland were analyzed. Development of the pharmacometrics computer model is based on the non-linear mixed effects approach accounting for inter-individual variability and incorporating individual patient characteristics. Disease severity groups were defined based on free thyroxine (FT4) measurements at diagnosis.  

Results: Data from 44 children with GD (75% female, median age 11 years, 62% receiving monotherapy) were analyzed. FT4 measurements were collected in 13, 15, and 16 pediatric patients with mild, moderate, or severe GD, with a median FT4 at diagnosis of 59.9 pmol/l (IQR 48.4, 76.8), and a total of 494 FT4 measurements during a median follow-up of 1.89 years (IQR 1.69, 1.97). We observed no notable difference between severity groups in terms of patient characteristics, daily carbimazole starting doses, and patient years. The final pharmacometrics computer model was developed based on FT4 measurements and on carbimazole or on carbimazole and levothyroxine doses involving two clinically relevant covariate effects: age at diagnosis and disease severity.  

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