Mind the gap : olfactory trace conditioning in honeybees

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The Journal of Neuroscience. 2011, 31(20), pp. 7229-7239. ISSN 0270-6474. eISSN 1529-2401. Available under: doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6668-10.2011
Zusammenfassung

Trace conditioning is a form of classical conditioning, where a neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) is associated with a following appetitive or aversive stimulus (unconditioned stimulus, US). Unlike classical delay conditioning, in trace conditioning there is a stimulus-free gap between CS and US, and thus a poststimulus neural representation (trace) of the CS is required to bridge the gap until its association with the US. The properties of such stimulus traces are not well understood, nor are their underlying physiological mechanisms. Using behavioral and physiological approaches, we studied appetitive olfactory trace conditioning in honeybees. We found that single-odor presentation created a trace containing information about odor identity. This trace conveyed odor information about the initial stimulus and was robust against interference by other odors.Memoryacquisition decreased with increasingCS–USgap length. The maximumlearnable CS–US gap length could be extended by previous trace-conditioning experience. Furthermore, acquisition improved when an additional odor was presented during the CS–US gap. Using calcium imaging, we tested whether projection neurons in the primary olfactory brain area, the antennal lobe, contain a CS trace. We found odor-specific persistent responses after stimulus offset. These post-odor responses, however, did not encode the CS trace, and perceived odor quality could be predicted by the initial but not by the post-odor response. Our data suggest that olfactory trace conditioning is a less reflexive form of learning than classical delay conditioning, indicating that odor traces might involve higher-level cognitive processes.

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ISO 690SZYSZKA, Paul, Christiane DEMMLER, Mariann OEMISCH, Ludwig SOMMER, Stephanie D. BIERGANS, Benjamin BIRNBACH, Ana F. SILBERING, C. Giovanni GALIZIA, 2011. Mind the gap : olfactory trace conditioning in honeybees. In: The Journal of Neuroscience. 2011, 31(20), pp. 7229-7239. ISSN 0270-6474. eISSN 1529-2401. Available under: doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6668-10.2011
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@article{Szyszka2011-05-18olfac-17314,
  year={2011},
  doi={10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6668-10.2011},
  title={Mind the gap : olfactory trace conditioning in honeybees},
  number={20},
  volume={31},
  issn={0270-6474},
  journal={The Journal of Neuroscience},
  pages={7229--7239},
  author={Szyszka, Paul and Demmler, Christiane and Oemisch, Mariann and Sommer, Ludwig and Biergans, Stephanie D. and Birnbach, Benjamin and Silbering, Ana F. and Galizia, C. Giovanni}
}
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