Differential modulation of motor cortex plasticity in skill- and endurance-trained athletes

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2015
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Kumpulainen, Susanne
Avela, Janne
Voigt, Michael
Linnamo, Vesa
Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie
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European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2015, 115(5), pp. 1107-1115. ISSN 1439-6319. eISSN 1439-6327. Available under: doi: 10.1007/s00421-014-3092-6
Zusammenfassung

Purpose
Extensive evidence exists that regular physical exercise offers neuroplastic benefits to the brain. In this study, exercise-specific effects on motor cortex plasticity were compared between 15 skilled and 15 endurance trained athletes and 8 controls.

Methods
Plasticity was tested with a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol. PAS is a non-invasive stimulation method developed to induce bidirectional changes in the excitability of the cortical projections to the target muscles. Motor cortex excitability was assessed by motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the task-relevant soleus muscle, elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation, before and following PAS. To test for changes at the spinal level, soleus short latency stretch reflexes (SLSR) were elicited before and after PAS.

Results
PAS induced a significant (76 ± 83 %) increase in MEP amplitude in the skill group, without significant changes in the endurance (−7 ± 35 %) or control groups (21 ± 30 %). Baseline MEP/post MEP ratio was significantly different between the skill and endurance groups. SLSR remained unchanged after the PAS intervention.

Conclusion
The possible reason for differential motor cortex plasticity in skill and endurance groups is likely related to the different training-induced adaptations. The findings of the current study suggest that long-term skill training by skill group induced preferable adaptations in the task-related areas of the motor cortex because increased plasticity is known to enhance motor learning.

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ISO 690KUMPULAINEN, Susanne, Janne AVELA, Markus GRUBER, Julian-Alexander BERGMANN, Michael VOIGT, Vesa LINNAMO, Natalie MRACHACZ-KERSTING, 2015. Differential modulation of motor cortex plasticity in skill- and endurance-trained athletes. In: European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2015, 115(5), pp. 1107-1115. ISSN 1439-6319. eISSN 1439-6327. Available under: doi: 10.1007/s00421-014-3092-6
BibTex
@article{Kumpulainen2015-05Diffe-30184,
  year={2015},
  doi={10.1007/s00421-014-3092-6},
  title={Differential modulation of motor cortex plasticity in skill- and endurance-trained athletes},
  number={5},
  volume={115},
  issn={1439-6319},
  journal={European Journal of Applied Physiology},
  pages={1107--1115},
  author={Kumpulainen, Susanne and Avela, Janne and Gruber, Markus and Bergmann, Julian-Alexander and Voigt, Michael and Linnamo, Vesa and Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie}
}
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