Metabolic architecture of the cereal grain and its relevance to maximize carbon use efficiency

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2015
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Rolletschek, Hardy
Grafahrend-Belau, Eva
Munz, Eberhard
Radchuk, Volodymyr V
Kartäusch, Ralf
Tschiersch, Henning
Melkus, Gerd
Jakob, Peter M
Borisjuk, Ljudmilla
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Plant Physiology. 2015, 169(3), S. 1698-1713. ISSN 0032-0889. eISSN 1532-2548. Verfügbar unter: doi: 10.1104/pp.15.00981
Zusammenfassung

Here, we have characterized the spatial heterogeneity of the cereal grain's metabolism and demonstrated how, by integrating a distinct set of metabolic strategies, the grain has evolved to become an almost perfect entity for carbon storage. In vivo imaging revealed light-induced cycles in assimilate supply toward the ear/grain of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum). In silico modeling predicted that, in the two grain storage organs (the endosperm and embryo), the light-induced shift in solute influx does cause adjustment in metabolic flux without changes in pathway utilization patterns. The enveloping, leaf-like pericarp, in contrast, shows major shifts in flux distribution (starch metabolism, photosynthesis, remobilization, and tricarboxylic acid cycle activity) allow to refix 79% of the CO2 released by the endosperm and embryo, allowing the grain to achieve an extraordinary high carbon conversion efficiency of 95%. Shading experiments demonstrated that ears are autonomously able to raise the influx of solutes in response to light, but with little effect on the steady-state levels of metabolites or transcripts or on the pattern of sugar distribution within the grain. The finding suggests the presence of a mechanism(s) able to ensure metabolic homeostasis in the face of short-term environmental fluctuation. The proposed multicomponent modeling approach is informative for predicting the metabolic effects of either an altered level of incident light or a momentary change in the supply of sucrose. It is therefore of potential value for assessing the impact of either breeding and/or biotechnological interventions aimed at increasing grain yield.

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ISO 690ROLLETSCHEK, Hardy, Eva GRAFAHREND-BELAU, Eberhard MUNZ, Volodymyr V RADCHUK, Ralf KARTÄUSCH, Henning TSCHIERSCH, Gerd MELKUS, Falk SCHREIBER, Peter M JAKOB, Ljudmilla BORISJUK, 2015. Metabolic architecture of the cereal grain and its relevance to maximize carbon use efficiency. In: Plant Physiology. 2015, 169(3), S. 1698-1713. ISSN 0032-0889. eISSN 1532-2548. Verfügbar unter: doi: 10.1104/pp.15.00981
BibTex
@article{Rolletschek2015-09-22Metab-38192,
  year={2015},
  doi={10.1104/pp.15.00981},
  title={Metabolic architecture of the cereal grain and its relevance to maximize carbon use efficiency},
  number={3},
  volume={169},
  issn={0032-0889},
  journal={Plant Physiology},
  pages={1698--1713},
  author={Rolletschek, Hardy and Grafahrend-Belau, Eva and Munz, Eberhard and Radchuk, Volodymyr V and Kartäusch, Ralf and Tschiersch, Henning and Melkus, Gerd and Schreiber, Falk and Jakob, Peter M and Borisjuk, Ljudmilla}
}
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