The rapid growth of 3 µm long titania nanotubes by anodization of titanium in a neutral electrochemical bath

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2010
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Lockman, Zainovia
Ismail, Syahriza
Sreekantan, Srimala
MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.
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Nanotechnology. 2010, 21(5), 055601. ISSN 0957-4484. eISSN 1361-6528. Available under: doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/21/5/055601
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The length of titania nanotubes formed by anodization of 0.1 mm thick titanium foil was found to be a strong function of the pH of the electrolyte. The longest nanotubes were formed by using an electrolyte consisting of 1 M Na(2)SO(4) plus 5 wt% NH(4)F with pH 7. At this pH, after 30 min of anodization, 3 microm length nanotubular titania arrays with top diameters of approximately 50 nm and bottom diameters of 100 nm were produced. No acid was added to this electrolyte. The formation of titania nanotubes in neutral pH systems was therefore successful due to the excess NH(4)F in the electrolyte which increases the chemical dissolution process at the metal/oxide interface. Since the pH of the electrolyte at the top part of the nanotubes is kept very high, the dissolution of the nanotubes at the surface is minimal. However, the amount is adequate to remove the initial barrier layer, forming a rather well-defined nanoporous structure. All anodized foils were weakly crystalline and the transformation to anatase phase was achieved by heat treatment at temperatures from 200 to 500 degrees C for 1 h in air. Annealing at temperatures above 500 degrees C induce rutile phase formation and annealing at higher temperatures accelerates the diffusion of Ti(4+) leading to excessive growth and the nanotubular structure diminishes.

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ISO 690LOCKMAN, Zainovia, Syahriza ISMAIL, Srimala SREEKANTAN, Lukas SCHMIDT-MENDE, Judith L. MACMANUS-DRISCOLL, 2010. The rapid growth of 3 µm long titania nanotubes by anodization of titanium in a neutral electrochemical bath. In: Nanotechnology. 2010, 21(5), 055601. ISSN 0957-4484. eISSN 1361-6528. Available under: doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/21/5/055601
BibTex
@article{Lockman2010-02-05rapid-25195,
  year={2010},
  doi={10.1088/0957-4484/21/5/055601},
  title={The rapid growth of 3 µm long titania nanotubes by anodization of titanium in a neutral electrochemical bath},
  number={5},
  volume={21},
  issn={0957-4484},
  journal={Nanotechnology},
  author={Lockman, Zainovia and Ismail, Syahriza and Sreekantan, Srimala and Schmidt-Mende, Lukas and MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.},
  note={Article Number: 055601}
}
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