Social network analysis reveals context-dependent kin relationships in wild sulphur-crested cockatoos Cacatua galerita

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2023
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Ewart, Kyle M.
Klump, Barbara Christina
Martin, John M.
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A preference to associate with kin facilitates inclusive fitness benefits, and increased tolerance or cooperation between kin may be an added benefit of group living. Many species exhibit preferred associations with kin; however, it is often hard to disentangle active preferences from passive overlap, for example caused by limited dispersal or inheritance of social position. Many parrots exhibit social systems consisting of pair-bonded individuals foraging in variably sized fission-fusion flocks within larger communal roosts of hundreds of individuals. Previous work has shown that, despite these fission-fusion dynamics, individuals can exhibit long-term preferred foraging associations outside their pair bonds. Yet the underlying drivers of these social preferences remain largely unknown. In this study, we use a network approach to examine the influence of kinship on social associations and interactions in wild, communally roosting sulphur-crested cockatoos, Cacatua galerita. We recorded roost co-membership, social associations and interactions in 561 individually marked birds across three neighbouring roosts. We then collected genetic samples from 205 cockatoos, and conducted a relationship analysis to construct a kinship network. Finally, we tested correlations between kinship and four social networks: association, affiliative, low-intensity aggression and high-intensity aggression. Our result showed that while roosting groups were clearly defined, they showed little genetic differentiation or kin structuring. Between roost movement was high, with juveniles, especially females, repeatedly moving between roosts. Both within roosting communities, and when visiting different roosts, individuals preferentially associated with kin. Supporting this, individuals were also more likely to allopreen kin. However, contrary to expectation, individuals preferred to direct aggression towards kin, with this effect only observed when individuals shared roost membership. By measuring social networks within and between large roosting groups, we could remove potential effects of passive spatial overlap on kin structuring. Our study reveals that sulphur-crested cockatoos actively prefer to associate with kin, both within and between roosting groups. By examining this across different interaction types, we further demonstrate that sulphur-crested cockatoos exhibit behavioural and context-dependent interaction rules towards kin. Our results help reveal the drivers of social association in this species, while adding to the evidence for social complexity in parrots.

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ISO 690PENNDORF, Julia, Kyle M. EWART, Barbara Christina KLUMP, John M. MARTIN, Lucy M. APLIN, 2023. Social network analysis reveals context-dependent kin relationships in wild sulphur-crested cockatoos Cacatua galerita. In: The Journal of animal ecology. Wiley. 2023, 92(1), pp. 171-182. ISSN 0021-8790. eISSN 1365-2656. Available under: doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.13839
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@article{Penndorf2023Socia-59381,
  year={2023},
  doi={10.1111/1365-2656.13839},
  title={Social network analysis reveals context-dependent kin relationships in wild sulphur-crested cockatoos Cacatua galerita},
  number={1},
  volume={92},
  issn={0021-8790},
  journal={The Journal of animal ecology},
  pages={171--182},
  author={Penndorf, Julia and Ewart, Kyle M. and Klump, Barbara Christina and Martin, John M. and Aplin, Lucy M.}
}
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