Rapid and Parallel Adaptive Evolution of the Visual System of Neotropical Midas Cichlid Fishes

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Comparative genomics of parallel in repeated adaptive radiations (GenAdap)
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Molecular biology and evolution. 2017, 34(10), pp. 2469-2485. ISSN 0737-4038. eISSN 1537-1719. Available under: doi: 10.1093/molbev/msx143
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Midas cichlid fish are a Central American species flock containing 13 described species that has been dated to only a few thousand years old, a historical timescale infrequently associated with speciation. Their radiation involved the colonization of several clear water crater lakes from two turbid great lakes. Therefore, Midas cichlids have been subjected to widely varying photic conditions during their radiation. Being a primary signal relay for information from the environment to the organism, the visual system is under continuing selective pressure and a prime organ system for accumulating adaptive changes during speciation, particularly in the case of dramatic shifts in photic conditions. Here, we characterize the full visual system of Midas cichlids at organismal and genetic levels, to determine what types of adaptive changes evolved within the short time span of their radiation. We show that Midas cichlids have a diverse visual system with unexpectedly high intra- and interspecific variation in color vision sensitivity and lens transmittance. Midas cichlid populations in the clear crater lakes have convergently evolved visual sensitivities shifted toward shorter wavelengths compared with the ancestral populations from the turbid great lakes. This divergence in sensitivity is driven by changes in chromophore usage, differential opsin expression, opsin coexpression, and to a lesser degree by opsin coding sequence variation. The visual system of Midas cichlids has the evolutionary capacity to rapidly integrate multiple adaptations to changing light environments. Our data may indicate that, in early stages of divergence, changes in opsin regulation could precede changes in opsin coding sequence evolution.

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ISO 690TORRES-DOWDALL, Julián, Michele E. R. PIEROTTI, Andreas HÄRER, Nidal KARAGIC, Joost M. WOLTERING, Frederico HENNING, Kathryn R. ELMER, Axel MEYER, 2017. Rapid and Parallel Adaptive Evolution of the Visual System of Neotropical Midas Cichlid Fishes. In: Molecular biology and evolution. 2017, 34(10), pp. 2469-2485. ISSN 0737-4038. eISSN 1537-1719. Available under: doi: 10.1093/molbev/msx143
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@article{TorresDowdall2017Rapid-40642,
  year={2017},
  doi={10.1093/molbev/msx143},
  title={Rapid and Parallel Adaptive Evolution of the Visual System of Neotropical Midas Cichlid Fishes},
  number={10},
  volume={34},
  issn={0737-4038},
  journal={Molecular biology and evolution},
  pages={2469--2485},
  author={Torres-Dowdall, Julián and Pierotti, Michele E. R. and Härer, Andreas and Karagic, Nidal and Woltering, Joost M. and Henning, Frederico and Elmer, Kathryn R. and Meyer, Axel}
}
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