Resorcinol Hydroxylase of Azoarcus anaerobius : Molybdenum Dependence, Activity, and Heterologous Expression

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2020
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Darley, Paula I.
Hellstern, Jutta
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Current Microbiology. Springer. 2020, 77(11), pp. 3385-3396. ISSN 0343-8651. eISSN 1432-0991. Available under: doi: 10.1007/s00284-020-02186-x
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The obligately anaerobic, denitrifying bacterium Azoarcus anaerobius strain LuFRes1 grows with resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene) as sole carbon and energy source. Resorcinol is oxidized to hydroxyhydroquinone (1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene) by resorcinol hydroxylase (RH), an inducible membrane-bound enzyme. Sequence comparison places resorcinol hydroxylase into the group of anaerobic molybdopterin oxidoreductases and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase-like enzymes. In the large subunit, a molybdopterin-binding domain was predicted, and the small subunit most likely contains two [4Fe–4S] centers. Growth of molybdate-starved cells was inhibited by tungstate, and in vitro resorcinol hydroxylase activity was inhibited by arsenite and selenite that are known to inhibit molybdenum-containing enzymes. The two genes encoding resorcinol hydroxylase could be expressed in Escherichia coli but the products remained in inclusion bodies. All attempts to purify RH from A. anaerobius or to produce soluble, active RH in E. coli failed. Nevertheless, RH was produced as a C-terminally Strep-tagged protein from plasmid pSKM1 in Thauera aromatica AR1 transconjugants carrying a transposon insertion in the coding gene for the large (ΔrhL) or the small subunit (ΔrhS) of RH from cosmid R+. RH in the membrane fraction of wild-type transconjugant T. aromatica AR1/R+ showed a specific activity of 80 mU mg−1, and the specific activity of RH in the membranes of the complemented mutants was in the same range (80–95 mU mg−1). We conclude that RH of A. anaerobius is a membrane-bound molybdoenzyme consisting of two subunits which might require a further loosely bound subunit as membrane anchor.

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ISO 690DARLEY, Paula I., Jutta HELLSTERN, Bernhard SCHINK, Bodo PHILIPP, 2020. Resorcinol Hydroxylase of Azoarcus anaerobius : Molybdenum Dependence, Activity, and Heterologous Expression. In: Current Microbiology. Springer. 2020, 77(11), pp. 3385-3396. ISSN 0343-8651. eISSN 1432-0991. Available under: doi: 10.1007/s00284-020-02186-x
BibTex
@article{Darley2020-11Resor-51122,
  year={2020},
  doi={10.1007/s00284-020-02186-x},
  title={Resorcinol Hydroxylase of Azoarcus anaerobius : Molybdenum Dependence, Activity, and Heterologous Expression},
  number={11},
  volume={77},
  issn={0343-8651},
  journal={Current Microbiology},
  pages={3385--3396},
  author={Darley, Paula I. and Hellstern, Jutta and Schink, Bernhard and Philipp, Bodo}
}
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    <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">The obligately anaerobic, denitrifying bacterium Azoarcus anaerobius strain LuFRes1 grows with resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene) as sole carbon and energy source. Resorcinol is oxidized to hydroxyhydroquinone (1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene) by resorcinol hydroxylase (RH), an inducible membrane-bound enzyme. Sequence comparison places resorcinol hydroxylase into the group of anaerobic molybdopterin oxidoreductases and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase-like enzymes. In the large subunit, a molybdopterin-binding domain was predicted, and the small subunit most likely contains two [4Fe–4S] centers. Growth of molybdate-starved cells was inhibited by tungstate, and in vitro resorcinol hydroxylase activity was inhibited by arsenite and selenite that are known to inhibit molybdenum-containing enzymes. The two genes encoding resorcinol hydroxylase could be expressed in Escherichia coli but the products remained in inclusion bodies. All attempts to purify RH from A. anaerobius or to produce soluble, active RH in E. coli failed. Nevertheless, RH was produced as a C-terminally Strep-tagged protein from plasmid pSKM1 in Thauera aromatica AR1 transconjugants carrying a transposon insertion in the coding gene for the large (ΔrhL) or the small subunit (ΔrhS) of RH from cosmid R&lt;sup&gt;+&lt;/sup&gt;. RH in the membrane fraction of wild-type transconjugant T. aromatica AR1/R&lt;sup&gt;+&lt;/sup&gt; showed a specific activity of 80 mU mg&lt;sup&gt;−1&lt;/sup&gt;, and the specific activity of RH in the membranes of the complemented mutants was in the same range (80–95 mU mg&lt;sup&gt;−1&lt;/sup&gt;). We conclude that RH of A. anaerobius is a membrane-bound molybdoenzyme consisting of two subunits which might require a further loosely bound subunit as membrane anchor.</dcterms:abstract>
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