Spin Shuttling and Spin-Photon Interaction for the Scalability of Semiconductor Spin Qubits

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Quantum physics describes the universe on a microscopic scale. Even though this scale is not accessible without complex experimental setups, quantum effects are respon- sible for the properties of matter and in some instances we have learned to exploit them technologically. A modern computer constituted of transistors passively utilizes the quantum nature of charge carriers in the band structure of semiconductors to encode and process information. Although such a classical computer is a formidable tool already, what could be achieved with active control over the quantum states in the computer is an intriguing question. This is the idea of the quantum computer, which offers an entirely new paradigm of computing by encoding information in quantum binary digits (qubits). Indeed, for several applications it has been shown that a quantum computer is superior to its classical counterpart, even though its realization remains elusive up to date. One candidate to host qubits are gate-defined semiconductor quantum dots, confin- ing single or few charge carriers with spin. The spin of a single confined electron is a quantum two-level system which can be manipulated and measured, allowing the storage and processing of quantum information. This thesis can be viewed as part of the endeavor to give birth to quantum computers based on semiconductor spin qubits. It primarily focuses on the challenge to enable scalable architectures of well-characterized qubits. In the first part, spin shuttling is investigated. This denotes the coherent transport of a single spin between spatially separate nodes of a quantum processor, driven by a time-dependent electric potential. The object of study is a minimal version of a bucket- brigade-like spin shuttling between two quantum dots. The probability of maintaining the spin state is identified as figure of merit and the effect of spin-orbit interaction and the Zeeman effect in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is explored with analytical and numerical methods. Special attention is paid to the repercussions of near-degenerate valleys. The second part of the thesis addresses the challenge to probe the microscopic properties of a quantum dot array, which is a crucial first step before any quantum operation can be performed. The transmission of a microwave resonator coupled to a triple quantum dot occupied by two electrons is investigated, and a scheme to infer the exchange interaction between electrons in adjacent quantum dots is proposed. By means of analytical derivations it is shown that the transmission profile of the resonator directly reveals the value of the exchange coupling strength between two electrons. This holds even if magnetic gradients or a valley splitting comparable to the inter-dot tunnel coupling are included. Subsequently, quantum transport measurements in the Pauli blockade regime are modelled in the presence of a microwave resonator, bringing together two powerful techniques to probe quantum dots. Based on generalized input-output theory, a theoretical framework is derived to investigate how a double quantum dot in a transport setup interacts with a coupled microwave resonator while the current through the double qauntum dot is rectified by Pauli blockade. It is shown that the output field of the resonator can be used to infer the leakage current and thus obtain insight into the blockade mechanisms and to estimate a large number of parameters of the quantum dots. Furthermore, the back-action of the resonator photons on the steady state leakage current is described and quantified. In the context of Pauli blockade, the spin and valley physics of bilayer graphene quantum dots in the few-electron regime is touched upon, describing a situation where spin blockade is observed despite the presence of the valleys. In the final part of the thesis, the attention is shifted towards the readout of the spin qubits. A new paradigm of dispersive readout is devised, which is performed while the qubit dephases, implementing a measurement in the x-basis. Laplace transforming the time dependent cavity response allows a separation of contributions from multiple qubits coupled to the same resonator. Thus, they can be read out simultaneously in a single shot. Modelling silicon spin qubits, as an example, results in in a readout time that compares favourably to conventional dispersive readout with comparable fidelity, even for a single qubit. With an auxiliary qubit the readout scheme can be extended to a quantum non-demolition measurement.

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ISO 690GINZEL, Florian, 2023. Spin Shuttling and Spin-Photon Interaction for the Scalability of Semiconductor Spin Qubits [Dissertation]. Konstanz: University of Konstanz
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@phdthesis{Ginzel2023Shutt-66956,
  year={2023},
  title={Spin Shuttling and Spin-Photon Interaction for the Scalability of Semiconductor Spin Qubits},
  author={Ginzel, Florian},
  address={Konstanz},
  school={Universität Konstanz}
}
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One candidate to host qubits are gate-defined semiconductor quantum dots, confin- ing single or few charge carriers with spin. The spin of a single confined electron is a quantum two-level system which can be manipulated and measured, allowing the storage and processing of quantum information. This thesis can be viewed as part of the endeavor to give birth to quantum computers based on semiconductor spin qubits. It primarily focuses on the challenge to enable scalable architectures of well-characterized qubits.
In the first part, spin shuttling is investigated. This denotes the coherent transport of a single spin between spatially separate nodes of a quantum processor, driven by a time-dependent electric potential. The object of study is a minimal version of a bucket- brigade-like spin shuttling between two quantum dots. The probability of maintaining the spin state is identified as figure of merit and the effect of spin-orbit interaction and the Zeeman effect in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is explored with analytical and numerical methods. Special attention is paid to the repercussions of near-degenerate valleys.
The second part of the thesis addresses the challenge to probe the microscopic properties of a quantum dot array, which is a crucial first step before any quantum operation can be performed. The transmission of a microwave resonator coupled to a triple quantum dot occupied by two electrons is investigated, and a scheme to infer the exchange interaction between electrons in adjacent quantum dots is proposed. By means of analytical derivations it is shown that the transmission profile of the resonator directly reveals the value of the exchange coupling strength between two electrons. This holds even if magnetic gradients or a valley splitting comparable to the inter-dot tunnel coupling are included.
Subsequently, quantum transport measurements in the Pauli blockade regime are modelled in the presence of a microwave resonator, bringing together two powerful techniques to probe quantum dots. Based on generalized input-output theory, a theoretical framework is derived to investigate how a double quantum dot in a transport setup interacts with a coupled microwave resonator while the current through the double qauntum dot is rectified by Pauli blockade. It is shown that the output field of the resonator can be used to infer the leakage current and thus obtain insight into the blockade mechanisms and to estimate a large number of parameters of the quantum dots. Furthermore, the back-action of the resonator photons on the steady state leakage current is described and quantified. In the context of Pauli blockade, the spin and valley physics of bilayer graphene quantum dots in the few-electron regime is touched upon, describing a situation where spin blockade is observed despite the presence of the valleys.
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May 15, 2023
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Konstanz, Univ., Diss., 2023
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