Activation of short-chain ketones and isopropanol in sulfate-reducing bacteria

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BMC microbiology. BioMed Central. 2021, 21(1), 50. eISSN 1471-2180. Available under: doi: 10.1186/s12866-021-02112-6
Zusammenfassung

Background:
Degradation of acetone by aerobic and nitrate-reducing bacteria can proceed via carboxylation to acetoacetate and subsequent thiolytic cleavage to two acetyl residues. A different strategy was identified in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfococcus biacutus that involves formylation of acetone to 2-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA.

Results:
Utilization of short-chain ketones (acetone, butanone, 2-pentanone and 3-pentanone) and isopropanol by the sulfate reducer Desulfosarcina cetonica was investigated by differential proteome analyses and enzyme assays. Two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis indicated that D. cetonica during growth with acetone expresses enzymes homologous to those described for Desulfococcus biacutus: a thiamine diphosphate (TDP)-requiring enzyme, two subunits of a B12-dependent mutase, and a NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase. Total proteomics of cell-free extracts confirmed these results and identified several additional ketone-inducible proteins. Acetone is activated, most likely mediated by the TDP-dependent enzyme, to a branched-chain CoA-ester, 2-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA. This compound is linearized to 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA by a coenzyme B12-dependent mutase followed by oxidation to acetoacetyl-CoA by a dehydrogenase. Proteomic analysis of isopropanol- and butanone-grown cells revealed the expression of a set of enzymes identical to that expressed during growth with acetone. Enzyme assays with cell-free extract of isopropanol- and butanone-grown cells support a B12-dependent isomerization. After growth with 2-pentanone or 3-pentanone, similar protein patterns were observed in cell-free extracts as those found after growth with acetone.

Conclusions:
According to these results, butanone and isopropanol, as well as the two pentanone isomers, are degraded by the same enzymes that are used also in acetone degradation. Our results indicate that the degradation of several short-chain ketones appears to be initiated by TDP-dependent formylation in sulfate-reducing bacteria.

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570 Biowissenschaften, Biologie
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Anaerobic acetone degradation, Ketone degradation, Pentanone, Sulfate reduction, 2-hydroxyisobutyryl- CoA, Thiamine diphosphate, Adenosylcobalami
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ISO 690FREY, Jasmin, Sophie KASSNER, Dieter SPITELLER, Mario MERGELSBERG, Matthias BOLL, David SCHLEHECK, Bernhard SCHINK, 2021. Activation of short-chain ketones and isopropanol in sulfate-reducing bacteria. In: BMC microbiology. BioMed Central. 2021, 21(1), 50. eISSN 1471-2180. Available under: doi: 10.1186/s12866-021-02112-6
BibTex
@article{Frey2021-02-16Activ-52950,
  year={2021},
  doi={10.1186/s12866-021-02112-6},
  title={Activation of short-chain ketones and isopropanol in sulfate-reducing bacteria},
  number={1},
  volume={21},
  journal={BMC microbiology},
  author={Frey, Jasmin and Kaßner, Sophie and Spiteller, Dieter and Mergelsberg, Mario and Boll, Matthias and Schleheck, David and Schink, Bernhard},
  note={Article Number: 50}
}
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    <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">Background:&lt;br /&gt;Degradation of acetone by aerobic and nitrate-reducing bacteria can proceed via carboxylation to acetoacetate and subsequent thiolytic cleavage to two acetyl residues. A different strategy was identified in the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfococcus biacutus that involves formylation of acetone to 2-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Results:&lt;br /&gt;Utilization of short-chain ketones (acetone, butanone, 2-pentanone and 3-pentanone) and isopropanol by the sulfate reducer Desulfosarcina cetonica was investigated by differential proteome analyses and enzyme assays. Two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis indicated that D. cetonica during growth with acetone expresses enzymes homologous to those described for Desulfococcus biacutus: a thiamine diphosphate (TDP)-requiring enzyme, two subunits of a B12-dependent mutase, and a NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase. Total proteomics of cell-free extracts confirmed these results and identified several additional ketone-inducible proteins. Acetone is activated, most likely mediated by the TDP-dependent enzyme, to a branched-chain CoA-ester, 2-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA. This compound is linearized to 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA by a coenzyme B12-dependent mutase followed by oxidation to acetoacetyl-CoA by a dehydrogenase. Proteomic analysis of isopropanol- and butanone-grown cells revealed the expression of a set of enzymes identical to that expressed during growth with acetone. Enzyme assays with cell-free extract of isopropanol- and butanone-grown cells support a B12-dependent isomerization. After growth with 2-pentanone or 3-pentanone, similar protein patterns were observed in cell-free extracts as those found after growth with acetone.&lt;br /&gt;&lt;br /&gt;Conclusions:&lt;br /&gt;According to these results, butanone and isopropanol, as well as the two pentanone isomers, are degraded by the same enzymes that are used also in acetone degradation. Our results indicate that the degradation of several short-chain ketones appears to be initiated by TDP-dependent formylation in sulfate-reducing bacteria.</dcterms:abstract>
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