Explaining Contextualization in Language Models using Visual Analytics

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2021
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ZONG, Chengqing, ed., Fei XIA, ed., Wenjie LI, ed. and others. Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing, Volume 1: Long Papers). Stroudsburg, PA: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2021, pp. 464-476. ISBN 978-1-954085-52-7. Available under: doi: 10.18653/v1/2021.acl-long.39
Zusammenfassung

Despite the success of contextualized language models on various NLP tasks, it is still unclear what these models really learn. In this paper, we contribute to the current efforts of explaining such models by exploring the continuum between function and content words with respect to contextualization in BERT, based on linguistically-informed insights. In particular, we utilize scoring and visual analytics techniques: we use an existing similarity-based score to measure contextualization and integrate it into a novel visual analytics technique, presenting the model’s layers simultaneously and highlighting intra-layer properties and inter-layer differences. We show that contextualization is neither driven by polysemy nor by pure context variation. We also provide insights on why BERT fails to model words in the middle of the functionality continuum.

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400 Sprachwissenschaft, Linguistik
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59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing, 1. Aug. 2021 - 6. Aug. 2021, Bangkok
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ISO 690SEVASTJANOVA, Rita, Aikaterini-Lida KALOULI, Christin SCHÄTZLE, Hanna SCHÄFER, Mennatallah EL-ASSADY, 2021. Explaining Contextualization in Language Models using Visual Analytics. 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing. Bangkok, 1. Aug. 2021 - 6. Aug. 2021. In: ZONG, Chengqing, ed., Fei XIA, ed., Wenjie LI, ed. and others. Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing, Volume 1: Long Papers). Stroudsburg, PA: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2021, pp. 464-476. ISBN 978-1-954085-52-7. Available under: doi: 10.18653/v1/2021.acl-long.39
BibTex
@inproceedings{Sevastjanova2021Expla-55999,
  year={2021},
  doi={10.18653/v1/2021.acl-long.39},
  title={Explaining Contextualization in Language Models using Visual Analytics},
  isbn={978-1-954085-52-7},
  publisher={Association for Computational Linguistics},
  address={Stroudsburg, PA},
  booktitle={Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing, Volume 1: Long Papers)},
  pages={464--476},
  editor={Zong, Chengqing and Xia, Fei and Li, Wenjie},
  author={Sevastjanova, Rita and Kalouli, Aikaterini-Lida and Schätzle, Christin and Schäfer, Hanna and El-Assady, Mennatallah}
}
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