Creating Directionality in Nanoporous Carbon Materials : Adjustable Combinations of Structural and Chemical Gradients

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Advanced Functional Materials. 2019, 29(44), 1904058. ISSN 1616-301X. eISSN 1616-3028. Available under: doi: 10.1002/adfm.201904058
Zusammenfassung

The properties of porous materials benefit from hierarchical porosity. A less noted element of hierarchy is the occurrence of directionality in functional gradient materials. A sharp boundary is replaced by a transition from one feature to the next. The number of cases known for porous materials with either structural or chemical gradients is small. A method capable of generating combinations of structural and chemical gradients in one material does not exist. Such a method is presented with a focus on silver and nitrogen containing carbon materials because of the potential of this system for electrocatalytic CO2 reduction. A structural gradient results from controlled separation using ultracentrifugation of a binary mixture of template particles in a resorcinol–formaldehyde (RF) sol as carbon precursor. A new level of complexity can be reached, if the surfaces of the template particles are chemically modified. Although the template is removed during carbonization, the modification (Ag, N) becomes integrated into the material. Understanding how modified and unmodified large and small particles sediment in the RF sol enables almost infinite variability of combinations: chemically graded but structurally homogeneous materials and vice versa. Ultimately, a material containing one structural gradient and two chemical gradients with opposing directions is introduced.

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ISO 690BAHNER, Jochen, Nele KLINKENBERG, Marvin FRISCH, Lilly BRAUCHLE, Sebastian POLARZ, 2019. Creating Directionality in Nanoporous Carbon Materials : Adjustable Combinations of Structural and Chemical Gradients. In: Advanced Functional Materials. 2019, 29(44), 1904058. ISSN 1616-301X. eISSN 1616-3028. Available under: doi: 10.1002/adfm.201904058
BibTex
@article{Bahner2019-11Creat-46670,
  year={2019},
  doi={10.1002/adfm.201904058},
  title={Creating Directionality in Nanoporous Carbon Materials : Adjustable Combinations of Structural and Chemical Gradients},
  number={44},
  volume={29},
  issn={1616-301X},
  journal={Advanced Functional Materials},
  author={Bahner, Jochen and Klinkenberg, Nele and Frisch, Marvin and Brauchle, Lilly and Polarz, Sebastian},
  note={Article Number: 1904058}
}
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