Direct Monitoring of Nucleotide Turnover in Human Cell Extracts and Cells by Fluorogenic ATP Analogs

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ACS Chemical Biology. 2015, 10(11), pp. 2544-2552. ISSN 1554-8929. eISSN 1554-8937. Available under: doi: 10.1021/acschembio.5b00459
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Nucleotides containing adenosine play pivotal roles in every living cell. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), for example, is the universal energy currency, and ATP-consuming processes also contribute to posttranslational protein modifications. Nevertheless, detecting the turnover of adenosine nucleotides in the complex setting of a cell remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate the use of fluorogenic analogs of ATP and adenosine tetraphosphate to study nucleotide hydrolysis in lysates of human cell lines and in intact human cells. We found that the adenosine triphosphate analog is completely stable in lysates of human cell lines, whereas the adenosine tetraphosphate analog is rapidly turned over. The observed activity in human cell lysates can be assigned to a single enzyme, namely, the human diadenosine tetraphosphate hydrolase NudT2. Since NudT2 has been shown to be a prognostic factor for breast cancer, the adenosine tetraphosphate analog might contribute to a better understanding of its involvement in cancerogenesis and allow the straightforward screening for inhibitors. Studying hydrolysis of the analogs in intact cells, we found that electroporation is a suitable method to deliver nucleotide analogs into the cytoplasm and show that high FRET efficiencies can be detected directly after internalization. Time-dependent experiments reveal that adenosine triphosphate and tetraphosphate analogs are both processed in the cellular environment. This study demonstrates that these nucleotide analogs indeed bear the potential to be powerful tools for the exploration of nucleotide turnover in the context of whole cells.

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ISO 690HACKER, Stephan M., Annette BUNTZ, Andreas ZUMBUSCH, Andreas MARX, 2015. Direct Monitoring of Nucleotide Turnover in Human Cell Extracts and Cells by Fluorogenic ATP Analogs. In: ACS Chemical Biology. 2015, 10(11), pp. 2544-2552. ISSN 1554-8929. eISSN 1554-8937. Available under: doi: 10.1021/acschembio.5b00459
BibTex
@article{Hacker2015-08Direc-32625,
  year={2015},
  doi={10.1021/acschembio.5b00459},
  title={Direct Monitoring of Nucleotide Turnover in Human Cell Extracts and Cells by Fluorogenic ATP Analogs},
  number={11},
  volume={10},
  issn={1554-8929},
  journal={ACS Chemical Biology},
  pages={2544--2552},
  author={Hacker, Stephan M. and Buntz, Annette and Zumbusch, Andreas and Marx, Andreas}
}
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