Quantum Susceptibilities in Time-Domain Sampling of Electric Field Fluctuations

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Laser & Photonics Reviews. Wiley-Blackwell. 2022, 16(3), 2100423. ISSN 1863-8880. eISSN 1863-8899. Available under: doi: 10.1002/lpor.202100423
Zusammenfassung

Electro-optic sampling has emerged as a new quantum technique enabling measurements of electric field fluctuations on subcycle time scales. In a second-order nonlinear material, the fluctuations of a terahertz field are imprinted onto the polarization properties of an ultrashort probe pulse in the near infrared. The statistics of this time-domain signal are calculated, incorporating the quantum nature of the involved electric fields right from the beginning. A microscopic quantum theory of the electro-optic process is developed adopting an ensemble of noninteracting three-level systems as a model for the nonlinear material. It is found that the response of the nonlinear medium can be separated into a conventional part, which is exploited also in sampling of coherent amplitudes, and quantum contributions, which are independent of the state of the terahertz input. Interactions between the three-level systems which are mediated by terahertz vacuum fluctuations are causing this quantum response. Conditions under which the classical response serves as a good approximation of the electro-optic process are also determined and how the statistics of the sampled terahertz field can be reconstructed from the electro-optic signal is demonstrated. In a complementary regime, electro-optic sampling can serve as a spectroscopic tool to study the pure quantum susceptibilities of matter.

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ISO 690KIZMANN, Matthias, Andrey S. MOSKALENKO, Alfred LEITENSTORFER, Guido BURKARD, Shaul MUKAMEL, 2022. Quantum Susceptibilities in Time-Domain Sampling of Electric Field Fluctuations. In: Laser & Photonics Reviews. Wiley-Blackwell. 2022, 16(3), 2100423. ISSN 1863-8880. eISSN 1863-8899. Available under: doi: 10.1002/lpor.202100423
BibTex
@article{Kizmann2022Quant-56414,
  year={2022},
  doi={10.1002/lpor.202100423},
  title={Quantum Susceptibilities in Time-Domain Sampling of Electric Field Fluctuations},
  number={3},
  volume={16},
  issn={1863-8880},
  journal={Laser & Photonics Reviews},
  author={Kizmann, Matthias and Moskalenko, Andrey S. and Leitenstorfer, Alfred and Burkard, Guido and Mukamel, Shaul},
  note={Article Number: 2100423}
}
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