Heparin Specifically Interacts with Basic BBXB Motifs of the Chemokine CCL21 to Define CCR7 Signaling

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International Journal of Molecular Sciences. MDPI. 2023, 24(2), 1670. ISSN 1661-6596. eISSN 1422-0067. Available under: doi: 10.3390/ijms24021670
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Chemokines are critically involved in controlling directed leukocyte migration. Spatiotemporal secretion together with local retention processes establish and maintain local chemokine gradients that guide directional cell migration. Extracellular matrix proteins, particularly glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), locally retain chemokines through electrochemical interactions. The two chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 guide CCR7-expressing leukocytes, such as antigen-bearing dendritic cells and T lymphocytes, to draining lymph nodes to initiate adaptive immune responses. CCL21—in contrast to CCL19—is characterized by a unique extended C-terminus composed of highly charged residues to facilitate interactions with GAGs. Notably, both chemokines can trigger common, but also ligand-biased signaling through the same receptor. The underlying molecular mechanism of ligand-biased CCR7 signaling is poorly understood. Using a series of naturally occurring chemokine variants in combination with newly designed site-specific chemokine mutants, we herein assessed CCR7 signaling, as well as GAG interactions. We demonstrate that the charged chemokine C-terminus does not fully confer CCL21-biased CCR7 signaling. Besides the positively charged C-terminus, CCL21 also possesses specific BBXB motifs comprising basic amino acids. We show that CCL21 variants where individual BBXB motifs are mutated retain their capability to trigger G-protein-dependent CCR7 signaling, but lose their ability to interact with heparin. Moreover, we show that heparin specifically interacts with CCL21, but not with CCL19, and thereby competes with ligand-binding to CCR7 and prevents signaling. Hence, we provide evidence that soluble heparin, but not the other GAGs, complexes with CCL21 to define CCR7 signaling in a ligand-dependent manner.

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ISO 690ARTINGER, Marc, Oliver J. GERKEN, Daniel F. LEGLER, 2023. Heparin Specifically Interacts with Basic BBXB Motifs of the Chemokine CCL21 to Define CCR7 Signaling. In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences. MDPI. 2023, 24(2), 1670. ISSN 1661-6596. eISSN 1422-0067. Available under: doi: 10.3390/ijms24021670
BibTex
@article{Artinger2023-01-14Hepar-59992,
  year={2023},
  doi={10.3390/ijms24021670},
  title={Heparin Specifically Interacts with Basic BBXB Motifs of the Chemokine CCL21 to Define CCR7 Signaling},
  number={2},
  volume={24},
  issn={1661-6596},
  journal={International Journal of Molecular Sciences},
  author={Artinger, Marc and Gerken, Oliver J. and Legler, Daniel F.},
  note={Article Number: 1670}
}
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    <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">Chemokines are critically involved in controlling directed leukocyte migration. Spatiotemporal secretion together with local retention processes establish and maintain local chemokine gradients that guide directional cell migration. Extracellular matrix proteins, particularly glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), locally retain chemokines through electrochemical interactions. The two chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 guide CCR7-expressing leukocytes, such as antigen-bearing dendritic cells and T lymphocytes, to draining lymph nodes to initiate adaptive immune responses. CCL21—in contrast to CCL19—is characterized by a unique extended C-terminus composed of highly charged residues to facilitate interactions with GAGs. Notably, both chemokines can trigger common, but also ligand-biased signaling through the same receptor. The underlying molecular mechanism of ligand-biased CCR7 signaling is poorly understood. Using a series of naturally occurring chemokine variants in combination with newly designed site-specific chemokine mutants, we herein assessed CCR7 signaling, as well as GAG interactions. We demonstrate that the charged chemokine C-terminus does not fully confer CCL21-biased CCR7 signaling. Besides the positively charged C-terminus, CCL21 also possesses specific BBXB motifs comprising basic amino acids. We show that CCL21 variants where individual BBXB motifs are mutated retain their capability to trigger G-protein-dependent CCR7 signaling, but lose their ability to interact with heparin. Moreover, we show that heparin specifically interacts with CCL21, but not with CCL19, and thereby competes with ligand-binding to CCR7 and prevents signaling. Hence, we provide evidence that soluble heparin, but not the other GAGs, complexes with CCL21 to define CCR7 signaling in a ligand-dependent manner.</dcterms:abstract>
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