Model for contact formation of novel TeO2 containing Pb-free silver paste on n+ and p+ doped crystalline silicon

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2023
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Johnson, Simon
Sutton, Patricia
Goode, Angela
Booth, Jonathan
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Silver (Ag) pastes are widely used in the global market for most solar cell architectures. Thereby, lead (Pb) is no longer wanted in productions for environmental reasons. In this work, a model for the contact formation between Pb-free, tellurium oxide (TeO2) containing screen-printable Ag pastes and silicon is presented. It is shown that Te plays a key role in this model. Te is not only an important part in etching the surface passivation layers with TeO2 dissolving the dielectric layer but also for a formation of the contacts with Te forming a compound consisting of Ag2Te. Using EDX mapping, local contact regions can be examined and interpreted for contact formation. The used paste system enables far more flexible paste mixturing leading to a novel developed commercial paste which is on a par with other pastes used in industry concerning the resulting contact properties. This is also demonstrated in this work by the very low contact resistivity of less than 1 mΩcm2 over a wide range of firing peak temperatures. It is additionally shown that good resistivities can be achieved on both n+- and p+-doped regions.

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530 Physik
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Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Condensed Matter Physics, Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
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ISO 690GEML, Fabian, Benjamin GAPP, Simon JOHNSON, Patricia SUTTON, Angela GOODE, Jonathan BOOTH, Heiko PLAGWITZ, Giso HAHN, 2023. Model for contact formation of novel TeO2 containing Pb-free silver paste on n+ and p+ doped crystalline silicon. In: EPJ Photovoltaics. EDP Sciences. 2023, 14, 8. eISSN 2105-0716. Available under: doi: 10.1051/epjpv/2022034
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@article{Geml2023Model-66020,
  year={2023},
  doi={10.1051/epjpv/2022034},
  title={Model for contact formation of novel TeO<sub>2</sub> containing Pb-free silver paste on n<sup>+</sup> and p<sup>+</sup> doped crystalline silicon},
  volume={14},
  journal={EPJ Photovoltaics},
  author={Geml, Fabian and Gapp, Benjamin and Johnson, Simon and Sutton, Patricia and Goode, Angela and Booth, Jonathan and Plagwitz, Heiko and Hahn, Giso},
  note={Article Number: 8}
}
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