Quantification of archaea-driven freshwater nitrification from single cell to ecosystem levels

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2022
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Kitzinger, Katharina
Ngugi, David Kamanda
Büsing, Petra
Littmann, Sten
Kuypers, Marcel M. M.
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Deep oligotrophic lakes sustain large populations of the class Nitrososphaeria (Thaumarchaeota) in their hypolimnion. They are thought to be the key ammonia oxidizers in this habitat, but their impact on N-cycling in lakes has rarely been quantified. We followed this archaeal population in one of Europe’s largest lakes, Lake Constance, for two consecutive years using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics combined with stable isotope-based activity measurements. An abundant (8–39% of picoplankton) and transcriptionally active archaeal ecotype dominated the nitrifying community. It represented a freshwater-specific species present in major inland water bodies, for which we propose the name “Candidatus Nitrosopumilus limneticus”. Its biomass corresponded to 12% of carbon stored in phytoplankton over the year´s cycle. Ca. N. limneticus populations incorporated significantly more ammonium than most other microorganisms in the hypolimnion and were driving potential ammonia oxidation rates of 6.0 ± 0.9 nmol l‒1 d‒1, corresponding to potential cell-specific rates of 0.21 ± 0.11 fmol cell–1 d–1. At the ecosystem level, this translates to a maximum capacity of archaea-driven nitrification of 1.76 × 109 g N-ammonia per year or 11% of N-biomass produced annually by phytoplankton. We show that ammonia-oxidizing archaea play an equally important role in the nitrogen cycle of deep oligotrophic lakes as their counterparts in marine ecosystems.

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ISO 690KLOTZ, Franziska, Katharina KITZINGER, David Kamanda NGUGI, Petra BÜSING, Sten LITTMANN, Marcel M. M. KUYPERS, Bernhard SCHINK, Michael PESTER, 2022. Quantification of archaea-driven freshwater nitrification from single cell to ecosystem levels. In: The ISME Journal. Nature Publishing Group. 2022, 16(6), pp. 1647-1656. ISSN 1751-7362. eISSN 1751-7370. Available under: doi: 10.1038/s41396-022-01216-9
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@article{Klotz2022-06Quant-56977,
  year={2022},
  doi={10.1038/s41396-022-01216-9},
  title={Quantification of archaea-driven freshwater nitrification from single cell to ecosystem levels},
  number={6},
  volume={16},
  issn={1751-7362},
  journal={The ISME Journal},
  pages={1647--1656},
  author={Klotz, Franziska and Kitzinger, Katharina and Ngugi, David Kamanda and Büsing, Petra and Littmann, Sten and Kuypers, Marcel M. M. and Schink, Bernhard and Pester, Michael}
}
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