Precipitation predictability affects intra- and trans-generational plasticity and causes differential selection on root traits of Papaver rhoeas

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2022
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March-Salas, Martí
Scheepens, J. F.
Fitze, Patrick S.
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Frontiers in Plant Science. Frontiers Media. 2022, 13, 998169. eISSN 1664-462X. Available under: doi: 10.3389/fpls.2022.998169
Zusammenfassung

Climate forecasts show that in many regions the temporal distribution of precipitation events will become less predictable. Root traits may play key roles in dealing with changes in precipitation predictability, but their functional plastic responses, including transgenerational processes, are scarcely known. We investigated root trait plasticity of Papaver rhoeas with respect to higher versus lower intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal precipitation predictability (i.e., the degree of temporal autocorrelation among precipitation events) during a four-year outdoor multi-generation experiment. We first tested how the simulated predictability regimes affected intra-generational plasticity of root traits and allocation strategies of the ancestors, and investigated the selective forces acting on them. Second, we exposed three descendant generations to the same predictability regime experienced by their mothers or to a different one. We then investigated whether high inter-generational predictability causes root trait differentiation, whether transgenerational root plasticity existed and whether it was affected by the different predictability treatments. We found that the number of secondary roots, root biomass and root allocation strategies of ancestors were affected by changes in precipitation predictability, in line with intra-generational plasticity. Lower predictability induced a root response, possibly reflecting a fast-acquisitive strategy that increases water absorbance from shallow soil layers. Ancestors’ root traits were generally under selection, and the predictability treatments did neither affect the strength nor the direction of selection. Transgenerational effects were detected in root biomass and root weight ratio (RWR). In presence of lower predictability, descendants significantly reduced RWR compared to ancestors, leading to an increase in performance. This points to a change in root allocation in order to maintain or increase the descendants’ fitness. Moreover, transgenerational plasticity existed in maximum rooting depth and root biomass, and the less predictable treatment promoted the lowest coefficient of variation among descendants’ treatments in five out of six root traits. This shows that the level of maternal predictability determines the variation in the descendants’ responses, and suggests that lower phenotypic plasticity evolves in less predictable environments. Overall, our findings show that roots are functional plastic traits that rapidly respond to differences in precipitation predictability, and that the plasticity and adaptation of root traits may crucially determine how climate change will affect plants.

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ISO 690MARCH-SALAS, Martí, J. F. SCHEEPENS, Mark VAN KLEUNEN, Patrick S. FITZE, 2022. Precipitation predictability affects intra- and trans-generational plasticity and causes differential selection on root traits of Papaver rhoeas. In: Frontiers in Plant Science. Frontiers Media. 2022, 13, 998169. eISSN 1664-462X. Available under: doi: 10.3389/fpls.2022.998169
BibTex
@article{MarchSalas2022-11-14Preci-59169,
  year={2022},
  doi={10.3389/fpls.2022.998169},
  title={Precipitation predictability affects intra- and trans-generational plasticity and causes differential selection on root traits of Papaver rhoeas},
  volume={13},
  journal={Frontiers in Plant Science},
  author={March-Salas, Martí and Scheepens, J. F. and van Kleunen, Mark and Fitze, Patrick S.},
  note={Article Number: 998169}
}
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