The impact of co-acting competitors on shooting performance in elite biathletes

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2022
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Köhler, Hanna
Müller, Florian
Stoll, Oliver
Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen
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Grounded in social facilitation theory, this study examined the impact of co-acting competitors (i.e., opponents) on elite biathletes’ shooting performance based on World Cup competition data. To this end, the impact of the number as well as the mean overlapping time with co-acting competitors at the shooting range on both shooting time and shooting accuracy was assessed. Competition data of World Cup races from 2005 to 2020 were analysed. This included 115 mass start and 195 pursuit events of a total of 758 elite biathletes amounting to 57.251 shooting bouts equivalent to a total of 286.255 shots. Data was analysed using a fixed effects model. Results revealed two main findings: First, the more co-acting opponents were present at the shooting range, the shorter (i.e., better) was shooting time. However, more co-acting opponents were also associated with decreased shooting accuracy in mass start, but not in pursuit. Second, a longer temporal overlap with co-acting opponents negatively affected biathletes’ shooting time. There was no effect on shooting accuracy. To conclude, the present study provides first evidence for a link between co-acting competitors and shooting performance in elite biathletes by analysing ecologically valid, real world data.

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ISO 690HEINRICH, Amelie, Hanna KÖHLER, Florian MÜLLER, Oliver STOLL, Rouwen CAÑAL-BRULAND, 2022. The impact of co-acting competitors on shooting performance in elite biathletes. In: Journal of Sports Sciences. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. 2022, 40(18), pp. 2028-2036. ISSN 0264-0414. eISSN 1466-447X. Available under: doi: 10.1080/02640414.2022.2127514
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@article{Heinrich2022-10-13impac-58915,
  year={2022},
  doi={10.1080/02640414.2022.2127514},
  title={The impact of co-acting competitors on shooting performance in elite biathletes},
  number={18},
  volume={40},
  issn={0264-0414},
  journal={Journal of Sports Sciences},
  pages={2028--2036},
  author={Heinrich, Amelie and Köhler, Hanna and Müller, Florian and Stoll, Oliver and Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen}
}
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    <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">Grounded in social facilitation theory, this study examined the impact of co-acting competitors (i.e., opponents) on elite biathletes’ shooting performance based on World Cup competition data. To this end, the impact of the number as well as the mean overlapping time with co-acting competitors at the shooting range on both shooting time and shooting accuracy was assessed. Competition data of World Cup races from 2005 to 2020 were analysed. This included 115 mass start and 195 pursuit events of a total of 758 elite biathletes amounting to 57.251 shooting bouts equivalent to a total of 286.255 shots. Data was analysed using a fixed effects model. Results revealed two main findings: First, the more co-acting opponents were present at the shooting range, the shorter (i.e., better) was shooting time. However, more co-acting opponents were also associated with decreased shooting accuracy in mass start, but not in pursuit. Second, a longer temporal overlap with co-acting opponents negatively affected biathletes’ shooting time. There was no effect on shooting accuracy. To conclude, the present study provides first evidence for a link between co-acting competitors and shooting performance in elite biathletes by analysing ecologically valid, real world data.</dcterms:abstract>
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