Signalling in ciliates : long- and short-range signals and molecular determinants for cellular dynamics

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Biological Reviews. 2017, 92(1), pp. 60-107. ISSN 0006-3231. eISSN 1464-7931. Available under: doi: 10.1111/brv.12218
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In ciliates, unicellular representatives of the bikont branch of evolution, inter- and intracellular signalling pathways have been analysed mainly in Paramecium tetraurelia, Paramecium multimicronucleatum and Tetrahymena thermophila and in part also in Euplotes raikovi. Electrophysiology of ciliary activity in Paramecium spp. is a most successful example. Established signalling mechanisms include plasmalemmal ion channels, recently established intracellular Ca2+ -release channels, as well as signalling by cyclic nucleotides and Ca2+ . Ca2+ -binding proteins (calmodulin, centrin) and Ca2+ -activated enzymes (kinases, phosphatases) are involved. Many organelles are endowed with specific molecules cooperating in signalling for intracellular transport and targeted delivery. Among them are recently specified soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), monomeric GTPases, H(+) -ATPase/pump, actin, etc. Little specification is available for some key signal transducers including mechanosensitive Ca2+ -channels, exocyst complexes and Ca2+ -sensor proteins for vesicle-vesicle/membrane interactions. The existence of heterotrimeric G-proteins and of G-protein-coupled receptors is still under considerable debate. Serine/threonine kinases dominate by far over tyrosine kinases (some predicted by phosphoproteomic analyses). Besides short-range signalling, long-range signalling also exists, e.g. as firmly installed microtubular transport rails within epigenetically determined patterns, thus facilitating targeted vesicle delivery. By envisaging widely different phenomena of signalling and subcellular dynamics, it will be shown (i) that important pathways of signalling and cellular dynamics are established already in ciliates, (ii) that some mechanisms diverge from higher eukaryotes and (iii) that considerable uncertainties still exist about some essential aspects of signalling.

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ISO 690PLATTNER, Helmut, 2017. Signalling in ciliates : long- and short-range signals and molecular determinants for cellular dynamics. In: Biological Reviews. 2017, 92(1), pp. 60-107. ISSN 0006-3231. eISSN 1464-7931. Available under: doi: 10.1111/brv.12218
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@article{Plattner2017-02Signa-31997,
  year={2017},
  doi={10.1111/brv.12218},
  title={Signalling in ciliates : long- and short-range signals and molecular determinants for cellular dynamics},
  number={1},
  volume={92},
  issn={0006-3231},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  pages={60--107},
  author={Plattner, Helmut}
}
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