Regularly occurring bouts of retinal movements suggest an REM sleep-like state in jumping spiders

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2022
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Kim, Kris
De Agrò, Massimo
Shamble, Paul S.
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Sleep and sleep-like states are present across the animal kingdom, with recent studies convincingly demonstrating sleep-like states in arthropods, nematodes, and even cnidarians. However, the existence of different sleep phases across taxa is as yet unclear. In particular, the study of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is still largely centered on terrestrial vertebrates, particularly mammals and birds. The most salient indicator of REM sleep is the movement of eyes during this phase. Movable eyes, however, have evolved only in a limited number of lineages-an adaptation notably absent in insects and most terrestrial arthropods-restricting cross-species comparisons. Jumping spiders, however, possess movable retinal tubes to redirect gaze, and in newly emerged spiderlings, these movements can be directly observed through their temporarily translucent exoskeleton. Here, we report evidence for an REM sleep-like state in a terrestrial invertebrate: periodic bouts of retinal movements coupled with limb twitching and stereotyped leg curling behaviors during nocturnal resting in a jumping spider. Observed retinal movement bouts were consistent, including regular durations and intervals, with both increasing over the course of the night. That these characteristic REM sleep-like behaviors exist in a highly visual, long-diverged lineage further challenges our understanding of this sleep state. Comparisons across such long-diverged lineages likely hold important questions and answers about the visual brain as well as the origin, evolution, and function of REM sleep.

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ISO 690RÖSSLER, Daniela C., Kris KIM, Massimo DE AGRÒ, Alex JORDAN, C. Giovanni GALIZIA, Paul S. SHAMBLE, 2022. Regularly occurring bouts of retinal movements suggest an REM sleep-like state in jumping spiders. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS). National Academy of Sciences. 2022, 119(33), e2204754119. ISSN 0027-8424. eISSN 1091-6490. Available under: doi: 10.1073/pnas.2204754119
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@article{Roler2022-08-16Regul-58249,
  year={2022},
  doi={10.1073/pnas.2204754119},
  title={Regularly occurring bouts of retinal movements suggest an REM sleep-like state in jumping spiders},
  number={33},
  volume={119},
  issn={0027-8424},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS)},
  author={Rößler, Daniela C. and Kim, Kris and De Agrò, Massimo and Jordan, Alex and Galizia, C. Giovanni and Shamble, Paul S.},
  note={Article Number: e2204754119}
}
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