Anaerobic dissimilatory phosphite oxidation, an extremely efficient concept of microbial electron economy

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Environmental Microbiology. Wiley. 2023, 25(11), pp. 2068-2074. ISSN 1462-2912. eISSN 1462-2920. Available under: doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.16470
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Phosphite is a stable phosphorus compound that, together with phosphate, made up a substantial part of the total phosphorus content of the prebiotic Earth's crust. Oxidation of phosphite to phosphate releases electrons at an unusually low redox potential (−690 mV at pH 7.0). Numerous aerobic and anaerobic bacteria use phosphite as a phosphorus source and oxidise it to phosphate for synthesis of nucleotides and other phosphorus-containing cell constituents. Only two pure cultures of strictly anaerobic bacteria have been isolated so far that use phosphite as an electron donor in their energy metabolism, the Gram-positive Phosphitispora fastidiosa and the Gram-negative Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans. The key enzyme of this metabolism is an NAD+-dependent phosphite dehydrogenase enzyme that phosphorylates AMP to ADP. These phosphorylating phosphite dehydrogenases were found to be related to nucleoside diphosphate sugar epimerases. The produced NADH is channelled into autotrophic CO2 fixation via the Wood-Ljungdahl (CO-DH) pathway, thus allowing for nearly complete assimilation of the substrate electrons into bacterial biomass. This extremely efficient type of electron flow connects energy and carbon metabolism directly through NADH and might have been important in the early evolution of life when phosphite was easily available on Earth.

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570 Biowissenschaften, Biologie
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Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
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ISO 690MAO, Zhuqing, Nicolai MÜLLER, Sabrina BORUSAK, David SCHLEHECK, Bernhard SCHINK, 2023. Anaerobic dissimilatory phosphite oxidation, an extremely efficient concept of microbial electron economy. In: Environmental Microbiology. Wiley. 2023, 25(11), pp. 2068-2074. ISSN 1462-2912. eISSN 1462-2920. Available under: doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.16470
BibTex
@article{Mao2023-08Anaer-67551,
  year={2023},
  doi={10.1111/1462-2920.16470},
  title={Anaerobic dissimilatory phosphite oxidation, an extremely efficient concept of microbial electron economy},
  number={11},
  volume={25},
  issn={1462-2912},
  journal={Environmental Microbiology},
  pages={2068--2074},
  author={Mao, Zhuqing and Müller, Nicolai and Borusak, Sabrina and Schleheck, David and Schink, Bernhard}
}
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    <dcterms:abstract>Phosphite is a stable phosphorus compound that, together with phosphate, made up a substantial part of the total phosphorus content of the prebiotic Earth's crust. Oxidation of phosphite to phosphate releases electrons at an unusually low redox potential (−690 mV at pH 7.0). Numerous aerobic and anaerobic bacteria use phosphite as a phosphorus source and oxidise it to phosphate for synthesis of nucleotides and other phosphorus-containing cell constituents. Only two pure cultures of strictly anaerobic bacteria have been isolated so far that use phosphite as an electron donor in their energy metabolism, the Gram-positive Phosphitispora fastidiosa and the Gram-negative Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans. The key enzyme of this metabolism is an NAD+-dependent phosphite dehydrogenase enzyme that phosphorylates AMP to ADP. These phosphorylating phosphite dehydrogenases were found to be related to nucleoside diphosphate sugar epimerases. The produced NADH is channelled into autotrophic CO2 fixation via the Wood-Ljungdahl (CO-DH) pathway, thus allowing for nearly complete assimilation of the substrate electrons into bacterial biomass. This extremely efficient type of electron flow connects energy and carbon metabolism directly through NADH and might have been important in the early evolution of life when phosphite was easily available on Earth.</dcterms:abstract>
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