Why structure and chain length matter : on the biological significance underlying the structural heterogeneity of poly(ADP-ribose)

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Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a multifaceted post-translational modification, carried out by poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (poly-ARTs, PARPs), which play essential roles in (patho-) physiology, as well as cancer therapy. Using NAD+ as a substrate, acceptors, such as proteins and nucleic acids, can be modified with either single ADP-ribose units or polymers, varying considerably in length and branching. Recently, the importance of PAR structural heterogeneity with regards to chain length and branching came into focus. Here, we provide a concise overview on the current knowledge of the biochemical and physiological significance of such differently structured PAR. There is increasing evidence revealing that PAR’s structural diversity influences the binding characteristics of its readers, PAR catabolism, and the dynamics of biomolecular condensates. Thereby, it shapes various cellular processes, such as DNA damage response and cell cycle regulation. Contrary to the knowledge on the consequences of PAR’s structural diversity, insight into its determinants is just emerging, pointing to specific roles of different PARP members and accessory factors. In the future, it will be interesting to study the interplay with other post-translational modifications, the contribution of natural PARP variants, and the regulatory role of accessory molecules. This has the exciting potential for new therapeutic approaches, with the targeted modulation and tuning of PARPs’ enzymatic functions, rather than their complete inhibition, as a central premise.

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ISO 690REBER, Julia M., Aswin MANGERICH, 2021. Why structure and chain length matter : on the biological significance underlying the structural heterogeneity of poly(ADP-ribose). In: Nucleic Acids Research. Oxford University Press. 2021, 49(15), pp. 8432-8448. ISSN 0305-1048. eISSN 1362-4962. Available under: doi: 10.1093/nar/gkab618
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@article{Reber2021-09-07struc-54419,
  year={2021},
  doi={10.1093/nar/gkab618},
  title={Why structure and chain length matter : on the biological significance underlying the structural heterogeneity of poly(ADP-ribose)},
  number={15},
  volume={49},
  issn={0305-1048},
  journal={Nucleic Acids Research},
  pages={8432--8448},
  author={Reber, Julia M. and Mangerich, Aswin}
}
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    <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a multifaceted post-translational modification, carried out by poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (poly-ARTs, PARPs), which play essential roles in (patho-) physiology, as well as cancer therapy. Using NAD+ as a substrate, acceptors, such as proteins and nucleic acids, can be modified with either single ADP-ribose units or polymers, varying considerably in length and branching. Recently, the importance of PAR structural heterogeneity with regards to chain length and branching came into focus. Here, we provide a concise overview on the current knowledge of the biochemical and physiological significance of such differently structured PAR. There is increasing evidence revealing that PAR’s structural diversity influences the binding characteristics of its readers, PAR catabolism, and the dynamics of biomolecular condensates. Thereby, it shapes various cellular processes, such as DNA damage response and cell cycle regulation. Contrary to the knowledge on the consequences of PAR’s structural diversity, insight into its determinants is just emerging, pointing to specific roles of different PARP members and accessory factors. In the future, it will be interesting to study the interplay with other post-translational modifications, the contribution of natural PARP variants, and the regulatory role of accessory molecules. This has the exciting potential for new therapeutic approaches, with the targeted modulation and tuning of PARPs’ enzymatic functions, rather than their complete inhibition, as a central premise.</dcterms:abstract>
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