Multicolor femtosecond pump-probe system with single-electron sensitivity at low temperatures and high magnetic fields

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We present an ultrafast spectroscopy system designed for temporal and spectral resolution of transient transmission changes after excitation of single electrons in solid-state quantum structures. The system is designed for optimum long-term stability, offering the option of hands-off operation over several days. Pump and probe pulses are generated in a versatile Er:fiber laser system where visible photon energies may be tuned independently from 1.90 eV to 2.51 eV in three parallel branches. Bandwidth-limited pulse durations between 100 fs and 10 ps are available. The solid-state quantum systems under investigation are mounted in a closed-cycle superconducting magnet cryostat providing temperatures down to 1.6 K and magnetic fields of up to 9 T. The free-standing cryomagnet is coupled to the laser system by means of a high-bandwidth active beam steering unit to eliminate residual low-frequency mechanical vibrations of the pulse tube coolers. High-NA objective lenses inside the sample chamber are employed for focusing femtosecond laser pulses onto the sample and recollection of the transmission signal. The transmitted probe light is dispersed in a grating monochromator equipped with a liquid nitrogen-cooled CCD camera, enabling a frame rate of 559 Hz. In order to eliminate spurious background effects due to low-frequency changes in the thermal equilibrium of the sample, we operate with a lock-in scheme where, instead of the pump amplitude, the pump-probe timing is modulated. This feature is provided without any mechanical action by an electro-optic timing unit inside the femtosecond Er:fiber system. The performance of the instrument is tested with spectrally resolved pump-probe measurements on a single negatively charged CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot under a magnetic field of 9 T. Selective initialization and readout of charge and spin states is carried out via two different femtosecond laser pulses. High-quality results on subpicosecond intraband relaxation dynamics after single-electron excitation motivate a broad variety of future experiments in ultrafast quantum optics and few-fermion quantum dynamics.

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ISO 690TRAUM, Christian, Philipp HENZLER, Stefan LOHNER, H. BECKER, David NABBEN, Pascal GUMBSHEIMER, Christopher HINZ, Jan SCHMIDT, Denis V. SELETSKIY, Alfred LEITENSTORFER, 2019. Multicolor femtosecond pump-probe system with single-electron sensitivity at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. In: Review of scientific instruments. 2019, 90(12), 123003. ISSN 0034-6748. eISSN 1089-7623. Available under: doi: 10.1063/1.5126157
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@article{Traum2019-12-01Multi-48283,
  year={2019},
  doi={10.1063/1.5126157},
  title={Multicolor femtosecond pump-probe system with single-electron sensitivity at low temperatures and high magnetic fields},
  number={12},
  volume={90},
  issn={0034-6748},
  journal={Review of scientific instruments},
  author={Traum, Christian and Henzler, Philipp and Lohner, Stefan and Becker, H. and Nabben, David and Gumbsheimer, Pascal and Hinz, Christopher and Schmidt, Jan and Seletskiy, Denis V. and Leitenstorfer, Alfred},
  note={Article Number: 123003}
}
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