Heterochronic opsin expression due to early light deprivation results in drastically shifted visual sensitivity in a cichlid fish : Possible role of thyroid hormone signaling

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Comparative genomics of parallel in repeated adaptive radiations (GenAdap)
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Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B : Molecular and Developmental Evolution (JEZ). 2018, 330(4), pp. 202-214. ISSN 1552-5007. eISSN 1552-5015. Available under: doi: 10.1002/jez.b.22806
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During early ontogeny, visual opsin gene expression in cichlids is influenced by prevailing light regimen. Red light, for example, leads to an early switch from the expression of short‐wavelength sensitive to long‐wavelength sensitive opsins. Here, we address the influence of light deprivation on opsin expression. Individuals reared in constant darkness during the first 14 days post‐hatching (dph) showed a general developmental delay compared with fish reared under a 12:12 hr light–dark cycle (control group). Several characters including pigmentation patterns and eye development, appeared later in dark‐reared individuals. Quantitative real‐time PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization at six time points during the 14 days period revealed that fish from the control group expressed opsin genes from 5 dph on and maintained a short‐wavelength sensitive phenotype (sws1, rh2b, and rh2a). Onset of opsin expression in dark‐reared Midas cichlids was delayed by 4 days and visual sensitivity rapidly progressed toward a long‐wavelength sensitive phenotype (sws2b, rh2a, and lws). Shifts in visual sensitivities toward longer wavelengths are mediated by thyroid hormone (TH) in many vertebrates. Compared to control fish, dark‐reared individuals showed elevated dio3 expression levels ‐ a validated proxy for TH concentration ‐ suggesting higher circulating TH levels. Despite decelerated overall development, ontogeny of opsin gene expression was accelerated, resulting in retinae with long‐wavelength shifted predicted sensitivities compared to light‐reared individuals. Indirect evidence suggests that this was due to altered TH metabolism.

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ISO 690KARAGIC, Nidal, Andreas HÄRER, Axel MEYER, Julián TORRES-DOWDALL, 2018. Heterochronic opsin expression due to early light deprivation results in drastically shifted visual sensitivity in a cichlid fish : Possible role of thyroid hormone signaling. In: Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B : Molecular and Developmental Evolution (JEZ). 2018, 330(4), pp. 202-214. ISSN 1552-5007. eISSN 1552-5015. Available under: doi: 10.1002/jez.b.22806
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@article{Karagic2018-06Heter-42925,
  year={2018},
  doi={10.1002/jez.b.22806},
  title={Heterochronic opsin expression due to early light deprivation results in drastically shifted visual sensitivity in a cichlid fish : Possible role of thyroid hormone signaling},
  number={4},
  volume={330},
  issn={1552-5007},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B : Molecular and Developmental Evolution (JEZ)},
  pages={202--214},
  author={Karagic, Nidal and Härer, Andreas and Meyer, Axel and Torres-Dowdall, Julián}
}
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