Disease-Induced Mortality Outweighs Hunting in Causing Wild Boar Population Crash After African Swine Fever Outbreak

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2020
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Bubnicki, Jakub
Churski, Marcin
Gryz, Jakub
Podgórski, Tomasz
Kuijper, Dries P. J.
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Frontiers in Veterinary Science. Frontiers Research Foundation. 2020, 7, 378. eISSN 2297-1769. Available under: doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00378
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African swine fever (ASF) has been spreading in the Eurasian continent for more than 10 years now. Although the course of ASF in domestic pigs and its negative economic impact on the pork industry are well-known, we still lack a quantitative assessment of the impact of ASF on wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations under natural conditions. Wild boar is not only a reservoir for ASF; it is also one of the key wildlife species affecting structure and functioning of ecosystems. Therefore, knowledge on how ASF affects wild boar populations is crucial to better predict ecosystem response and for the design of scientific-based wild boar management to control ASF. We used a long-term camera trap survey (2012-2017) from the Białowieza Primeval Forest (BPF, Poland), where an ASF outbreak occurred in 2015, to investigate the impact of the disease on wild boar population dynamics under two contrasting management regimes (hunted vs. non-hunted). In the hunted part of BPF ("managed area"), hunting was drastically increased prior and after the first ASF case occurred (March 2015), whereas inside the National Park, hunting was not permitted ("unmanaged area," first detected case in June 2015). Using a random encounter model (REM), we showed that the density and abundance of wild boar dropped by 84 and 95% within 1 year following ASF outbreak in the unmanaged and managed area, respectively. In the managed area, we showed that 11-22% additional mortality could be attributed to hunting. Our study suggests that ASF-induced mortality, by far, outweighs hunting-induced mortality in causing wild boar population decline and shows that intensified hunting in newly ASF-infected areas does not achieve much greater reduction of population size than what is already caused by the ASF virus.

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ISO 690MORELLE, Kevin, Jakub BUBNICKI, Marcin CHURSKI, Jakub GRYZ, Tomasz PODGÓRSKI, Dries P. J. KUIJPER, 2020. Disease-Induced Mortality Outweighs Hunting in Causing Wild Boar Population Crash After African Swine Fever Outbreak. In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science. Frontiers Research Foundation. 2020, 7, 378. eISSN 2297-1769. Available under: doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00378
BibTex
@article{Morelle2020Disea-55543,
  year={2020},
  doi={10.3389/fvets.2020.00378},
  title={Disease-Induced Mortality Outweighs Hunting in Causing Wild Boar Population Crash After African Swine Fever Outbreak},
  volume={7},
  journal={Frontiers in Veterinary Science},
  author={Morelle, Kevin and Bubnicki, Jakub and Churski, Marcin and Gryz, Jakub and Podgórski, Tomasz and Kuijper, Dries P. J.},
  note={Article Number: 378}
}
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