Occipital and orbitofrontal hemodynamics during naturally paced reading : An fNIRS study

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2014
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Hofmann, Markus J.
Jacobs, Arthur M.
Kliegl, Reinhold
Radach, Ralph
Kuchinke, Lars
Plichta, Michael M.
Fallgatter, Andreas J.
Herrmann, Martin J.
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Humans typically read at incredibly fast rates, because they predict likely occurring words from a given context. Here, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to track the ultra-rapid hemodynamic responses of words presented every 280 ms in a naturally paced sentence context. We found a lower occipital deoxygenation to unpredictable than to predictable words. The greater hemodynamic responses to unexpected words suggest that the visual features of expected words have been pre-activated previous to stimulus presentation. Second, we tested opposing theoretical proposals about the role of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC): Either OFC may respond to the breach of expectation; or OFC is activated when the present stimulus matches the prediction. A significant interaction between word frequency and predictability indicated OFC responses to breaches of expectation for low- but not for high-frequency words: OFC is sensitive to both, bottom-up processing as mediated by word frequency, as well as top-down predictions. Particularly, when a rare word is unpredictable, OFC becomes active. Finally, we discuss how a high temporal resolution can help future studies to disentangle the hemodynamic responses of single trials in such an ultra-rapid event succession as naturally paced reading.

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ISO 690HOFMANN, Markus J., Michael DAMBACHER, Arthur M. JACOBS, Reinhold KLIEGL, Ralph RADACH, Lars KUCHINKE, Michael M. PLICHTA, Andreas J. FALLGATTER, Martin J. HERRMANN, 2014. Occipital and orbitofrontal hemodynamics during naturally paced reading : An fNIRS study. In: NeuroImage. 2014, 94, pp. 193-202. ISSN 1053-8119. eISSN 1095-9572. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.03.014
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@article{Hofmann2014-07-01Occip-27945,
  year={2014},
  doi={10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.03.014},
  title={Occipital and orbitofrontal hemodynamics during naturally paced reading : An fNIRS study},
  volume={94},
  issn={1053-8119},
  journal={NeuroImage},
  pages={193--202},
  author={Hofmann, Markus J. and Dambacher, Michael and Jacobs, Arthur M. and Kliegl, Reinhold and Radach, Ralph and Kuchinke, Lars and Plichta, Michael M. and Fallgatter, Andreas J. and Herrmann, Martin J.}
}
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