Combined Noninvasive Imaging and Modeling Approaches Reveal Metabolic Compartmentation in the Barley Endosperm

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2012
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Rolletschek, Hardy
Melkus, Gerd
Grafahrend-Belau, Eva
Heinzel, Nicolas
Jakob, Peter M.
Borisjuk, Ljudmilla
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The starchy endosperm of cereals is a priori taken as a metabolically uniform tissue. By applying a noninvasive assay based on (13)C/(1)H-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains, we uncovered metabolic compartmentation in the endosperm. (13)C-Suc feeding during grain filling showed that the primary site of Ala synthesis was the central region of the endosperm, the part of the caryopsis experiencing the highest level of hypoxia. Region-specific metabolism in the endosperm was characterized by flux balance analysis (FBA) and metabolite profiling. FBA predicts that in the central region of the endosperm, the tricarboxylic acid cycle shifts to a noncyclic mode, accompanied by elevated glycolytic flux and the accumulation of Ala. The metabolic compartmentation within the endosperm is advantageous for the grain's carbon and energy economy, with a prominent role being played by Ala aminotransferase. An investigation of caryopses with a genetically perturbed tissue pattern demonstrated that Ala accumulation is a consequence of oxygen status, rather than being either tissue specific or dependent on the supply of Suc. Hence the (13)C-Ala gradient can be used as an in vivo marker for hypoxia. The combination of MRI and metabolic modeling offers opportunities for the noninvasive analysis of metabolic compartmentation in plants.

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ISO 690ROLLETSCHEK, Hardy, Gerd MELKUS, Eva GRAFAHREND-BELAU, Johannes FUCHS, Nicolas HEINZEL, Falk SCHREIBER, Peter M. JAKOB, Ljudmilla BORISJUK, 2012. Combined Noninvasive Imaging and Modeling Approaches Reveal Metabolic Compartmentation in the Barley Endosperm. In: The Plant Cell. 2012, 23(8), pp. 3041-3054. ISSN 1040-4651. eISSN 1532-298X. Available under: doi: 10.1105/tpc.111.087015
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@article{Rolletschek2012-08-24Combi-38228,
  year={2012},
  doi={10.1105/tpc.111.087015},
  title={Combined Noninvasive Imaging and Modeling Approaches Reveal Metabolic Compartmentation in the Barley Endosperm},
  number={8},
  volume={23},
  issn={1040-4651},
  journal={The Plant Cell},
  pages={3041--3054},
  author={Rolletschek, Hardy and Melkus, Gerd and Grafahrend-Belau, Eva and Fuchs, Johannes and Heinzel, Nicolas and Schreiber, Falk and Jakob, Peter M. and Borisjuk, Ljudmilla}
}
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