Selection bias in social facilitation theory? : Audience effects on elite biathletes' performance are gender-specific

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2021
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Müller, Florian
Stoll, Oliver
Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen
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Psychology of Sport and Exercise. Elsevier Science. 2021, 55, 101943. ISSN 1469-0292. eISSN 1878-5476. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2021.101943
Zusammenfassung

Social facilitation proves robust in conditioning tasks (e.g., running), yet in coordination tasks (e.g., rifle-shooting) some studies report performance deterioration. Recent Biathlon World Cup data offered the unique opportunity to test this task-specificity (conditioning = cross country skiing, coordination = rifle-shooting). Audience restrictions due to COVID-19 allowed to compare athletes' performance in the absence (2020) and presence (season 2018/2019) of an audience. Gender-specific regulations (e.g., course length) necessitated the inclusion of gender as additional factor. Results of 83 (sprint competition) and 34 (mass start competition) biathletes revealed that task-specific social facilitation is moderated by gender: In the presence of an audience male biathletes showed performance improvements in the conditioning task and performance deteriorations in the coordination task; female biathletes showed the reverse pattern. This gender dependency may have gone unnoticed in the past due to sample selection bias (<1/3 female), thereby questioning the generalizability of social facilitation theory.

Zusammenfassung in einer weiteren Sprache
Fachgebiet (DDC)
796 Sport
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Social facilitation, Motor performance, Presence of others, Rifle shooting, Cross country skiing
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ISO 690HEINRICH, Amelie, Florian MÜLLER, Oliver STOLL, Rouwen CAÑAL-BRULAND, 2021. Selection bias in social facilitation theory? : Audience effects on elite biathletes' performance are gender-specific. In: Psychology of Sport and Exercise. Elsevier Science. 2021, 55, 101943. ISSN 1469-0292. eISSN 1878-5476. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2021.101943
BibTex
@article{Heinrich2021Selec-56824,
  year={2021},
  doi={10.1016/j.psychsport.2021.101943},
  title={Selection bias in social facilitation theory? : Audience effects on elite biathletes' performance are gender-specific},
  volume={55},
  issn={1469-0292},
  journal={Psychology of Sport and Exercise},
  author={Heinrich, Amelie and Müller, Florian and Stoll, Oliver and Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen},
  note={Article Number: 101943}
}
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