Geographic clines in Daphnia magna's circadian clock gene expression : Local adaptation to photoperiod

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Zoology. Elsevier. 2021, 144, 125856. ISSN 0944-2006. eISSN 1873-2720. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.zool.2020.125856
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Nearly all organisms show daily and seasonal physiological and behavioural responses that are necessary for their survival. Often these responses are controlled by the rhythmic activity of an endogenous clock that perceives day length. Day length differs not only between seasons but also along latitudes, with different seasonal day lengths between the north and the south. Both seasonal and latitudinal differences in day length are discussed to be perceived/processed by the endogenous clock. Some species are distributed over a wide range of latitudes; it should be highly adaptive for these species to be able to time physiological responses (e.g. migration behaviour and diapause) according to the organisms’ respective photoperiod, i.e. their respective seasonal and latitudinal day length. The mediator of day length is the indoleamine hormone melatonin which is synthesized by melatonin-producing enzymes (AANAT and HIOMT). These enzymes are in turn controlled by an endogenous clock. The ubiquitous aquatic keystone organism Daphnia possess clock and melatonin synthesis genes that are rhythmically expressed over 24 hours. We were able to show that the 24 -h rhythm of D. magna’s clock persists in constant darkness and is thus truly circadian. In one particular photoperiod, all D. magna clones produced a similar melatonin concentration due to a fixed AANAT activity. However, we have demonstrated that clones originating from different latitudes are adapted to their respective photoperiod by showing a geographic cline in clock and downstream melatonin synthesis gene expression. These findings hint at the problem locally adapted organisms face when they are forced to leave their respective photoperiod, e.g. because of climate change-driven range-expansion. If such a species is incapable of adjusting its endogenous clock to an unknown photoperiod, it will likely become extinct.

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ISO 690SCHWARZENBERGER, Anke, Natascha H. HANDKE, Tina ROMER, Alexander WACKER, 2021. Geographic clines in Daphnia magna's circadian clock gene expression : Local adaptation to photoperiod. In: Zoology. Elsevier. 2021, 144, 125856. ISSN 0944-2006. eISSN 1873-2720. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.zool.2020.125856
BibTex
@article{Schwarzenberger2021-02Geogr-53161,
  year={2021},
  doi={10.1016/j.zool.2020.125856},
  title={Geographic clines in Daphnia magna's circadian clock gene expression : Local adaptation to photoperiod},
  volume={144},
  issn={0944-2006},
  journal={Zoology},
  author={Schwarzenberger, Anke and Handke, Natascha H. and Romer, Tina and Wacker, Alexander},
  note={Article Number: 125856}
}
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