Optimizing phosphorus diffusion for photovoltaic applications : Peak doping, inactive phosphorus, gettering, and contact formation

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2016
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Wagner, Hannes
Min, Byungsul
Morishige, Ashley E.
del Cañizo, Carlos
Buonassisi, Tonio
Altermatt, Pietro P.
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Journal of Applied Physics. 2016, 119(18), 185704. ISSN 0021-8979. eISSN 1089-7550. Available under: doi: 10.1063/1.4949326
Zusammenfassung

The phosphosilicate glass (PSG), fabricated by tube furnace diffusion using a POCl3 source, is widely used as a dopant source in the manufacturing of crystalline silicon solar cells. Although it has been a widely addressed research topic for a long time, there is still lack of a comprehensive understanding of aspects such as the growth, the chemical composition, possible phosphorus depletion, the resulting in-diffused phosphorus profiles, the gettering behavior in silicon, and finally the metal-contact formation. This paper addresses these different aspects simultaneously to further optimize process conditions for photovoltaic applications. To do so, a wide range of experimental data is used and combined with device and process simulations, leading to a more comprehensive interpretation. The results show that slight changes in the PSG process conditions can produce high-quality emitters. It is predicted that PSG processes at 860 °C for 60 min in combination with an etch-back and laser doping from PSG layer results in high-quality emitters with a peak dopant density Npeak = 8.0 × 1018 cm−3 and a junction depth dj = 0.4 μm, resulting in a sheet resistivityρsh = 380 Ω/sq and a saturation current-density J0 below 10 fA/cm2. With these properties, the POCl3 process can compete with ion implantation or doped oxide approaches.

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ISO 690WAGNER, Hannes, Amir DASTGHEIB-SHIRAZI, Byungsul MIN, Ashley E. MORISHIGE, Michael STEYER, Giso HAHN, Carlos DEL CAÑIZO, Tonio BUONASSISI, Pietro P. ALTERMATT, 2016. Optimizing phosphorus diffusion for photovoltaic applications : Peak doping, inactive phosphorus, gettering, and contact formation. In: Journal of Applied Physics. 2016, 119(18), 185704. ISSN 0021-8979. eISSN 1089-7550. Available under: doi: 10.1063/1.4949326
BibTex
@article{Wagner2016-05-14Optim-35426,
  year={2016},
  doi={10.1063/1.4949326},
  title={Optimizing phosphorus diffusion for photovoltaic applications : Peak doping, inactive phosphorus, gettering, and contact formation},
  number={18},
  volume={119},
  issn={0021-8979},
  journal={Journal of Applied Physics},
  author={Wagner, Hannes and Dastgheib-Shirazi, Amir and Min, Byungsul and Morishige, Ashley E. and Steyer, Michael and Hahn, Giso and del Cañizo, Carlos and Buonassisi, Tonio and Altermatt, Pietro P.},
  note={Article Number: 185704}
}
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