Worldwide Occurrence and Activity of the Reef-Building Coral Symbiont Symbiodinium in the Open Ocean

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2018
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Decelle, Johan
Carradec, Quentin
Pochon, Xavier
Henry, Nicolas
Romac, Sarah
Mahé, Frédéric
Dunthorn, Micah
Kourlaiev, Artem
Wincker, Patrick
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Current Biology. Cell Press. 2018, 28(22), pp. 3625-3633.e3. ISSN 0960-9822. eISSN 1879-0445. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.09.024
Zusammenfassung

The dinoflagellate microalga Symbiodinium sustains coral reefs, one of the most diverse ecosystems of the biosphere, through mutualistic endosymbioses with a wide diversity of benthic hosts [1]. Despite its ecological and economic importance, the presence of Symbiodinium in open oceanic waters remains unknown, which represents a significant knowledge gap to fully understand the eco-evolutionary trajectory and resilience of endangered Symbiodinium-based symbioses. Here, we document the existence of Symbiodinium (i.e., now the family Symbiodiniaceae [2]) in tropical- and temperate-surface oceans using DNA and RNA metabarcoding of size-fractionated plankton samples collected at 109 stations across the globe. Symbiodinium from clades A and C were, by far, the most prevalent and widely distributed lineages (representing 0.1% of phytoplankton reads), while other lineages (clades B, D, E, F, and G) were present but rare. Concurrent metatranscriptomics analyses using the Tara Oceans gene catalog [3] revealed that Symbiodinium clades A and C were transcriptionally active in the open ocean and expressed core metabolic pathways (e.g., photosynthesis, carbon fixation, glycolysis, and ammonium uptake). Metabarcodes and expressed genes of clades A and C were detected in small and large plankton size fractions, suggesting the existence of a free-living population and a symbiotic lifestyle within planktonic hosts, respectively. However, high-resolution genetic markers and microscopy are required to confirm the life history of oceanic Symbiodinium. Overall, the previously unknown, metabolically active presence of Symbiodinium in oceanic waters opens up new avenues for investigating the potential of this oceanic reservoir to repopulate coral reefs following stress-induced bleaching.

Zusammenfassung in einer weiteren Sprache
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570 Biowissenschaften, Biologie
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Symbiodinium, phytoplankton, marine plankton, symbiosis, metabarcoding, open ocean, metatranscriptomics, coral reefs, Tara Oceans
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ISO 690DECELLE, Johan, Quentin CARRADEC, Xavier POCHON, Nicolas HENRY, Sarah ROMAC, Frédéric MAHÉ, Micah DUNTHORN, Artem KOURLAIEV, Christian R. VOOLSTRA, Patrick WINCKER, 2018. Worldwide Occurrence and Activity of the Reef-Building Coral Symbiont Symbiodinium in the Open Ocean. In: Current Biology. Cell Press. 2018, 28(22), pp. 3625-3633.e3. ISSN 0960-9822. eISSN 1879-0445. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.09.024
BibTex
@article{Decelle2018World-50996,
  year={2018},
  doi={10.1016/j.cub.2018.09.024},
  title={Worldwide Occurrence and Activity of the Reef-Building Coral Symbiont Symbiodinium in the Open Ocean},
  number={22},
  volume={28},
  issn={0960-9822},
  journal={Current Biology},
  pages={3625--3633.e3},
  author={Decelle, Johan and Carradec, Quentin and Pochon, Xavier and Henry, Nicolas and Romac, Sarah and Mahé, Frédéric and Dunthorn, Micah and Kourlaiev, Artem and Voolstra, Christian R. and Wincker, Patrick}
}
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