Effect of calcium-coacervate infiltration of artificial enamel caries lesions in de- and remineralizing conditions

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2024
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Kharbot, Basel
Bulgun, Neziha
Paris, Sebastian
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Journal of Dentistry. Elsevie. 2024, 142, 104838. ISSN 0300-5712. eISSN 1879-176X. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2024.104838
Zusammenfassung

Objectives Calcium-coacervate emulsions (CC) might be considered as mineral precursors to foster remineralization of carious dental hard tissues. This study analyzed the instant effect of repeated infiltration of artificial caries lesions with a CC emulsion as well as the effects of subsequent exposure of CC-infiltrated lesions to demineralizing and remineralizing environments.

Methods Bovine enamel specimens were partly covered with varnish to leave three exposed windows. Artificial enamel caries lesions were created (pH 4.95, 17d). Baseline controls (BL) were obtained by preparing a thin section of each specimen. Specimens were allocated to five groups. In three groups lesions were etched with 37 % phosphoric acid gel, infiltrated with dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and subsequently with a calcium coacervate emulsion, prepared by mixing CaCl2 ⋅ 2H2O with polyacrylic acid sodium salt (PAA-Na). Subsequently, the infiltration effect was either analyzed immediately (Inf.) or after exposition to either de- (Inf.+DS) or remineralizing solution (Inf.+RS) for 10 or 20 days, respectively. In two control groups specimens were exposed to either DS or RS, respectively without prior CC infiltration. Integrated mineral loss [ΔZ(vol%×µm)] was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR).

Results Infiltration of enamel caries lesions with coacervate solution resulted in only subtle immediate mineral gain even if repeated. When exposed to demineralizing conditions, infiltrated lesions showed significantly less mineral loss compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05; Kruskal Wallis) and exhibited characteristic mineral depositions within the lesion body.

Conclusions While immediate mineral gain by infiltration was only modest, the CC-emulsion might be able to prevent demineralization in acidic conditions.

Clinical significance Calcium coacervates might act protective against further demineralization when infiltrated into enamel caries lesions.

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540 Chemie
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Coacervates, Caries, Bio-inspired, Remineralization, Non-classical crystallization
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ISO 690KHARBOT, Basel, Neziha BULGUN, Helmut CÖLFEN, Sebastian PARIS, 2024. Effect of calcium-coacervate infiltration of artificial enamel caries lesions in de- and remineralizing conditions. In: Journal of Dentistry. Elsevie. 2024, 142, 104838. ISSN 0300-5712. eISSN 1879-176X. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2024.104838
BibTex
@article{Kharbot2024-01Effec-69093,
  year={2024},
  doi={10.1016/j.jdent.2024.104838},
  title={Effect of calcium-coacervate infiltration of artificial enamel caries lesions in de- and remineralizing conditions},
  volume={142},
  issn={0300-5712},
  journal={Journal of Dentistry},
  author={Kharbot, Basel and Bulgun, Neziha and Cölfen, Helmut and Paris, Sebastian},
  note={Article Number: 104838}
}
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    <dcterms:abstract>Objectives
Calcium-coacervate emulsions (CC) might be considered as mineral precursors to foster remineralization of carious dental hard tissues. This study analyzed the instant effect of repeated infiltration of artificial caries lesions with a CC emulsion as well as the effects of subsequent exposure of CC-infiltrated lesions to demineralizing and remineralizing environments.

Methods
Bovine enamel specimens were partly covered with varnish to leave three exposed windows. Artificial enamel caries lesions were created (pH 4.95, 17d). Baseline controls (BL) were obtained by preparing a thin section of each specimen. Specimens were allocated to five groups. In three groups lesions were etched with 37 % phosphoric acid gel, infiltrated with dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and subsequently with a calcium coacervate emulsion, prepared by mixing CaCl&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt; ⋅ 2H&lt;sub&gt;2&lt;/sub&gt;O with polyacrylic acid sodium salt (PAA-Na). Subsequently, the infiltration effect was either analyzed immediately (Inf.) or after exposition to either de- (Inf.+DS) or remineralizing solution (Inf.+RS) for 10 or 20 days, respectively. In two control groups specimens were exposed to either DS or RS, respectively without prior CC infiltration. Integrated mineral loss [ΔZ(vol%×µm)] was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR).

Results
Infiltration of enamel caries lesions with coacervate solution resulted in only subtle immediate mineral gain even if repeated. When exposed to demineralizing conditions, infiltrated lesions showed significantly less mineral loss compared to untreated controls (p &lt; 0.05; Kruskal Wallis) and exhibited characteristic mineral depositions within the lesion body.

Conclusions
While immediate mineral gain by infiltration was only modest, the CC-emulsion might be able to prevent demineralization in acidic conditions.

Clinical significance
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