Discovery of a kleptoplastic 'dinotom' dinoflagellate and the unique nuclear dynamics of converting kleptoplastids to permanent plastids

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2019
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Bolton, John J.
Trobajo, Rosa
Mann, David G.
Dąbek, Przemysław
Witkowski, Andrzej
Onuma, Ryo
Horiguchi, Takeo
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A monophyletic group of dinoflagellates, called 'dinotoms', are known to possess evolutionarily intermediate plastids derived from diatoms. The diatoms maintain their nuclei, mitochondria, and the endoplasmic reticulum in addition with their plastids, while it has been observed that the host dinoflagellates retain the diatoms permanently by controlling diatom karyokinesis. Previously, we showed that dinotoms have repeatedly replaced their diatoms. Here, we show the process of replacements is at two different evolutionary stages in two closely related dinotoms, Durinskia capensis and D. kwazulunatalensis. We clarify that D. capensis is a kleptoplastic protist keeping its diatoms temporarily, only for two months. On the other hand, D. kwazulunatalensis is able to keep several diatoms permanently and exhibits unique dynamics to maintain the diatom nuclei: the nuclei change their morphologies into a complex string-shape alongside the plastids during interphase and these string-shaped nuclei then condense into multiple round nuclei when the host divides. These dynamics have been observed in other dinotoms that possess permanent diatoms, while they have never been observed in any other eukaryotes. We suggest that the establishment of this unique mechanism might be a critical step for dinotoms to be able to convert kleptoplastids into permanent plastids.

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ISO 690YAMADA, Norico, John J. BOLTON, Rosa TROBAJO, David G. MANN, Przemysław DĄBEK, Andrzej WITKOWSKI, Ryo ONUMA, Takeo HORIGUCHI, Peter G. KROTH, 2019. Discovery of a kleptoplastic 'dinotom' dinoflagellate and the unique nuclear dynamics of converting kleptoplastids to permanent plastids. In: Scientific Reports. 2019, 9(1), 10474. eISSN 2045-2322. Available under: doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-46852-y
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@article{Yamada2019-07-19Disco-46477,
  year={2019},
  doi={10.1038/s41598-019-46852-y},
  title={Discovery of a kleptoplastic 'dinotom' dinoflagellate and the unique nuclear dynamics of converting kleptoplastids to permanent plastids},
  number={1},
  volume={9},
  journal={Scientific Reports},
  author={Yamada, Norico and Bolton, John J. and Trobajo, Rosa and Mann, David G. and Dąbek, Przemysław and Witkowski, Andrzej and Onuma, Ryo and Horiguchi, Takeo and Kroth, Peter G.},
  note={Article Number: 10474}
}
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    <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">A monophyletic group of dinoflagellates, called 'dinotoms', are known to possess evolutionarily intermediate plastids derived from diatoms. The diatoms maintain their nuclei, mitochondria, and the endoplasmic reticulum in addition with their plastids, while it has been observed that the host dinoflagellates retain the diatoms permanently by controlling diatom karyokinesis. Previously, we showed that dinotoms have repeatedly replaced their diatoms. Here, we show the process of replacements is at two different evolutionary stages in two closely related dinotoms, Durinskia capensis and D. kwazulunatalensis. We clarify that D. capensis is a kleptoplastic protist keeping its diatoms temporarily, only for two months. On the other hand, D. kwazulunatalensis is able to keep several diatoms permanently and exhibits unique dynamics to maintain the diatom nuclei: the nuclei change their morphologies into a complex string-shape alongside the plastids during interphase and these string-shaped nuclei then condense into multiple round nuclei when the host divides. These dynamics have been observed in other dinotoms that possess permanent diatoms, while they have never been observed in any other eukaryotes. We suggest that the establishment of this unique mechanism might be a critical step for dinotoms to be able to convert kleptoplastids into permanent plastids.</dcterms:abstract>
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