Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments

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2014
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Haibach, Pamela S.
Lieberman, Lauren J.
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Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2014, 35(10), pp. 2577-2584. ISSN 0891-4222. eISSN 1873-3379. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2014.05.030
Zusammenfassung

Children with visual impairments (CWVI) generally perform poorer in gross motor skills when compared with their sighted peers. This study examined the influence of age, sex, and severity of visual impairment upon locomotor and object control skills in CWVI. Participants included 100 CWVI from across the United States who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-II). The TGMD-II consists of 12 gross motor skills including 6 object control skills (catching, kicking, striking, dribbling, throwing, and rolling) and 6 locomotor skills (running, sliding, galloping, leaping, jumping, and hopping). The full range of visual impairments according to United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA; B3 = 20/200–20/599, legally blind; B2 = 20/600 and up, travel vision; B1 = totally blind) were assessed. The B1 group performed significantly worse than the B2 (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.049) or B3 groups (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.005); however, there were no significant differences between B2 and B3 except for the run (p = 0.006), catch (p = 0.000), and throw (p = 0.012). Age and sex did not play an important role in most of the skills, with the exception of boys outperforming girls striking (p = 0.009), dribbling (p = 0.013), and throwing (p = 0.000), and older children outperforming younger children in dribbling (p = 0.002). The significant impact of the severity of visual impairment is likely due to decreased experiences and opportunities for children with more severe visual impairments. In addition, it is likely that these reduced experiences explain the lack of age-related differences in the CWVI. The large disparities in performance between children who are blind and their partially sighted peers give direction for instruction and future research. In addition, there is a critical need for intentional and specific instruction on motor skills at a younger age to enable CWVI to develop their gross motor skills.

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796 Sport
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Gross motor skills, Children, Visual impairment, Blind, Age, Gender
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ISO 690HAIBACH, Pamela S., Matthias WAGNER, Lauren J. LIEBERMAN, 2014. Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments. In: Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2014, 35(10), pp. 2577-2584. ISSN 0891-4222. eISSN 1873-3379. Available under: doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2014.05.030
BibTex
@article{Haibach2014-10Deter-28925,
  year={2014},
  doi={10.1016/j.ridd.2014.05.030},
  title={Determinants of gross motor skill performance in children with visual impairments},
  number={10},
  volume={35},
  issn={0891-4222},
  journal={Research in Developmental Disabilities},
  pages={2577--2584},
  author={Haibach, Pamela S. and Wagner, Matthias and Lieberman, Lauren J.}
}
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    <dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng">Children with visual impairments (CWVI) generally perform poorer in gross motor skills when compared with their sighted peers. This study examined the influence of age, sex, and severity of visual impairment upon locomotor and object control skills in CWVI. Participants included 100 CWVI from across the United States who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development II (TGMD-II). The TGMD-II consists of 12 gross motor skills including 6 object control skills (catching, kicking, striking, dribbling, throwing, and rolling) and 6 locomotor skills (running, sliding, galloping, leaping, jumping, and hopping). The full range of visual impairments according to United States Association for Blind Athletes (USABA; B3 = 20/200–20/599, legally blind; B2 = 20/600 and up, travel vision; B1 = totally blind) were assessed. The B1 group performed significantly worse than the B2 (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.049) or B3 groups (0.000 ≤ p ≤ 0.005); however, there were no significant differences between B2 and B3 except for the run (p = 0.006), catch (p = 0.000), and throw (p = 0.012). Age and sex did not play an important role in most of the skills, with the exception of boys outperforming girls striking (p = 0.009), dribbling (p = 0.013), and throwing (p = 0.000), and older children outperforming younger children in dribbling (p = 0.002). The significant impact of the severity of visual impairment is likely due to decreased experiences and opportunities for children with more severe visual impairments. In addition, it is likely that these reduced experiences explain the lack of age-related differences in the CWVI. The large disparities in performance between children who are blind and their partially sighted peers give direction for instruction and future research. In addition, there is a critical need for intentional and specific instruction on motor skills at a younger age to enable CWVI to develop their gross motor skills.</dcterms:abstract>
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