Large-scale crowdsourced subjective assessment of picturewise just noticeable difference
2022, Lin, Hanhe, Chen, Guangan, Jenadeleh, Mohsen, Hosu, Vlad, Reips, Ulf-Dietrich, Hamzaoui, Raouf, Saupe, Dietmar
The picturewise just noticeable difference (PJND) for a given image, compression scheme, and subject is the smallest distortion level that the subject can perceive when the image is compressed with this compression scheme. The PJND can be used to determine the compression level at which a given proportion of the population does not notice any distortion in the compressed image. To obtain accurate and diverse results, the PJND must be determined for a large number of subjects and images. This is particularly important when experimental PJND data are used to train deep learning models that can predict a probability distribution model of the PJND for a new image. To date, such subjective studies have been carried out in laboratory environments. However, the number of participants and images in all existing PJND studies is very small because of the challenges involved in setting up laboratory experiments. To address this limitation, we develop a framework to conduct PJND assessments via crowdsourcing. We use a new technique based on slider adjustment and a flicker test to determine the PJND. A pilot study demonstrated that our technique could decrease the study duration by 50% and double the perceptual sensitivity compared to the standard binary search approach that successively compares a test image side by side with its reference image. Our framework includes a robust and systematic scheme to ensure the reliability of the crowdsourced results. Using 1,008 source images and distorted versions obtained with JPEG and BPG compression, we apply our crowdsourcing framework to build the largest PJND dataset, KonJND-1k (Konstanz just noticeable difference 1k dataset). A total of 503 workers participated in the study, yielding 61,030 PJND samples that resulted in an average of 42 samples per source image. The KonJND-1k dataset is available at http://database.mmsp-kn.de/konjnd-1k-database.html.
The Konstanz natural video database (KoNViD-1k)
2017, Hosu, Vlad, Hahn, Franz, Jenadeleh, Mohsen, Lin, Hanhe, Men, Hui, Sziranyi, Tamas, Li, Shujun, Saupe, Dietmar
Subjective video quality assessment (VQA) strongly depends on semantics, context, and the types of visual distortions. Currently, all existing VQA databases include only a small num- ber of video sequences with artificial distortions. The development and evaluation of objective quality assessment methods would benefit from having larger datasets of real-world video sequences with corresponding subjective mean opinion scores (MOS), in particular for deep learning purposes. In addition, the training and validation of any VQA method intended to be ‘general purpose’ requires a large dataset of video sequences that are representative of the whole spectrum of available video content and all types of distortions. We report our work on KoNViD-1k, a subjectively annotated VQA database consisting of 1,200 public- domain video sequences, fairly sampled from a large public video dataset, YFCC100m. We present the challenges and choices we have made in creating such a database aimed at ‘in the wild’ authentic distortions, depicting a wide variety of content.
Subjective Assessment of Global Picture-Wise Just Noticeable Difference
2020-07, Lin, Hanhe, Jenadeleh, Mohsen, Chen, Guangan, Reips, Ulf-Dietrich, Hamzaoui, Raouf, Saupe, Dietmar
The picture-wise just noticeable difference (PJND) for a given image and a compression scheme is a statistical quantity giving the smallest distortion that a subject can perceive when the image is compressed with the compression scheme. The PJND is determined with subjective assessment tests for a sample of subjects. We introduce and apply two methods of adjustment where the subject interactively selects the distortion level at the PJND using either a slider or keystrokes. We compare the results and times required to those of the adaptive binary search type approach, in which image pairs with distortions that bracket the PJND are displayed and the difference in distortion levels is reduced until the PJND is identified. For the three methods, two images are compared using the flicker test in which the displayed images alternate at a frequency of 8 Hz. Unlike previous work, our goal is a global one, determining the PJND not only for the original pristine image but also for a sequence of compressed versions. Results for the MCL-JCI dataset show that the PJND measurements based on adjustment are comparable with those of the traditional approach using binary search, yet significantly faster. Moreover, we conducted a crowdsourcing study with side-byside comparisons and forced choice, which suggests that the flicker test is more sensitive than a side-by-side comparison.