Legler, Daniel F.
GPR182 is a broadly scavenging atypical chemokine receptor influencing T-independent immunity
2023-07-24, Melgrati, Serena, Gerken, Oliver J., Artinger, Marc, Radice, Egle, Szpakowska, Martyna, Chevigné, Andy, D’Uonnolo, Giulia, Antonello, Paola, Legler, Daniel F., Thelen, Marcus
Immune responses highly depend on the effective trafficking of immune cells into and within secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). Atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs) scavenge chemokines to eliminate them from the extracellular space, thereby generating gradients that guide leukocytes. In contrast to canonical chemokine receptors, ACKRs do not induce classical intracellular signaling that results in cell migration. Recently, the closest relative of ACKR3, GPR182, has been partially deorphanized as a potential novel ACKR. We confirm and extend previous studies by identifying further ligands that classify GPR182 as a broadly scavenging chemokine receptor. We validate the “atypical” nature of the receptor, wherein canonical G-protein-dependent intracellular signaling is not activated following ligand stimulation. However, β-arrestins are required for ligand-independent internalization and chemokine scavenging whereas the C-terminus is in part dispensable. In the absence of GPR182 in vivo , we observed elevated chemokine levels in the serum but also in SLO interstitium. We also reveal that CXCL13 and CCL28, which do not bind any other ACKR, are bound and efficiently scavenged by GPR182. Moreover, we found a cooperative relationship between GPR182 and ACKR3 in regulating serum CXCL12 levels, and between GPR182 and ACKR4 in controlling CCL20 levels. Furthermore, we unveil a new phenotype in GPR182-KO mice, in which we observed a reduced marginal zone (MZ), both in size and in cellularity, and thus in the T-independent antibody response. Taken together, we and others have unveiled a novel, broadly scavenging chemokine receptor, which we propose should be named ACKR5.
Preformed reggie/flotillin caps : stable priming platforms for macrodomain assembly in T cells
2006-04, Langhorst, Matthias F., Reuter, Alexander, Luxenhofer, Georg, Boneberg, Eva-Maria, Legler, Daniel F., Plattner, Helmut, Stürmer, Claudia
T cell activation after contact with an antigen-presenting cell depends on the regulated assembly of the T cell receptor signaling complex, which involves the polarized assembly of a stable, raftlike macrodomain surrounding engaged T cell receptors. Here we show that the preformed reggie/flotillin caps present in resting T cells act as priming platforms for macrodomain assembly. Preformed reggie-1/flotillin-2 caps are exceptionally stable, as shown by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Upon T cell stimulation, signaling molecules are recruited to the stable reggie/flotillin caps. Importantly, a trans-negative reggie-1/flotillin-2 deletion mutant, which interferes with assembly of the preformed reggie/flotillin cap, impairs raft polarization and macrodomain formation after T cell activation. Accordingly, expression of the trans-negative reggie-1 mutant leads to the incorrect positioning of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav, resulting in defects in cytoskeletal reorganization. Thus, the preformed reggie/flotillin caps are stable priming platforms for the assembly of multiprotein complexes controlling actin reorganization during T cell activation.