Legler, Daniel F.
Naïve T lymphocytes chemotax long distance to CCL21 but not to a source of bioactive S1P
2023-10, Garcia-Seyda, Nicolas, Song, Solene, Seveau de Noray, Valentine, David-Broglio, Luc, Matti, Christoph, Artinger, Marc, Dupuy, Florian, Biarnes-Pelicot, Martine, Legler, Daniel F., Theodoly, Olivier
Naïve T lymphocytes traffic through the organism in search for antigen, alternating between blood and secondary lymphoid organs. Lymphocyte homing to lymph nodes relies on CCL21 chemokine sensing by CCR7 receptors, while exit into efferent lymphatics relies on sphingolipid S1P sensing by S1PR1 receptors. While both molecules are claimed chemotactic, a quantitative analysis of naïve T lymphocyte migration along defined gradients is missing. Here, we used a reductionist approach to study the real-time single-cell response of naïve T lymphocytes to CCL21 and serum rich in bioactive S1P. Using microfluidic and micropatterning ad hoc tools, we show that CCL21 triggers stable polarization and long-range chemotaxis of cells, whereas S1P-rich serum triggers a transient polarization only and no significant displacement, potentially representing a brief transmigration step through exit portals. Our in vitro data thus suggest that naïve T lymphocyte chemotax long distances to CCL21 but not towards a source of bioactive S1P.
A Versatile Toolkit for Semi-Automated Production of Fluorescent Chemokines to Study CCR7 Expression and Functions
2021-04-16, Artinger, Marc, Matti, Christoph, Gerken, Oliver J., Veldkamp, Christopher T., Legler, Daniel F.
Chemokines guide leukocyte migration in different contexts, including homeostasis, immune surveillance and immunity. The chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 control lymphocyte and dendritic cell migration and homing to lymphoid organs. Thereby they orchestrate adaptive immunity in a chemokine receptor CCR7-dependent manner. Likewise, cancer cells that upregulate CCR7 expression are attracted by these chemokines and metastasize to lymphoid organs. In-depth investigation of CCR7 expression and chemokine-mediated signaling is pivotal to understand their role in health and disease. Appropriate fluorescent probes to track these events are increasingly in demand. Here, we present an approach to cost-effectively produce and fluorescently label CCL19 and CCL21 in a semi-automated process. We established a versatile protocol for the production of recombinant chemokines harboring a small C-terminal S6-tag for efficient and site-specific enzymatic labelling with an inorganic fluorescent dye of choice. We demonstrate that the fluorescently labeled chemokines CCL19-S6Dy649P1 and CCL21-S6Dy649P1 retain their full biological function as assessed by their abilities to mobilize intracellular calcium, to recruit β-arrestin to engaged receptors and to attract CCR7-expressing leukocytes. Moreover, we show that CCL19-S6Dy649P1 serves as powerful reagent to monitor CCR7 internalization by time-lapse confocal video microscopy and to stain CCR7-positive primary human and mouse T cell sub-populations.
ACKR4 Recruits GRK3 Prior to β-Arrestins but Can Scavenge Chemokines in the Absence of β-Arrestins
2020, Matti, Christoph, Salnikov, Angela, Artinger, Marc, D'Agostino, Gianluca, Kindinger, Ilona, Uguccioni, Mariagrazia, Thelen, Marcus, Legler, Daniel F.
Chemokines are essential for guiding cell migration. Atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs) contribute to the cell migration process by binding, internalizing and degrading local chemokines, which enables the formation of confined gradients. ACKRs are heptahelical membrane spanning molecules structurally related to G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), but seem to be unable to signal through G-proteins upon ligand binding. ACKR4 internalizes the chemokines CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 and is best known for shaping functional CCL21 gradients. Ligand binding to ACKR4 has been shown to recruit β-arrestins that has led to the assumption that chemokine scavenging relies on β-arrestin-mediated ACKR4 trafficking, a common internalization route taken by class A GPCRs. Here, we show that CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 readily recruited β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2 to human ACKR4, but found no evidence for β-arrestin-dependent or independent ACKR4-mediated activation of the kinases Erk1/2, Akt, or Src. However, we demonstrate that β-arrestins interacted with ACKR4 in the steady-state and contributed to the spontaneous trafficking of the receptor in the absence of chemokines. Deleting the C-terminus of ACKR4 not only interfered with the interaction of β-arrestins, but also with the uptake of fluorescently labeled cognate chemokines. We identify the GPCR kinase GRK3, and to a lesser extent GRK2, but not GRK4, GRK5, and GRK6, to be recruited to chemokine-stimulated ACKR4. We show that GRK3 recruitment proceded the recruitment of β-arrestins upon ACKR4 engagement and that GRK2/3 inhibition partially interfered with steady-state interaction and chemokine-driven recruitment of β-arrestins to ACKR4. Overexpressing β-arrestin2 accelerated the uptake of fluorescently labeled CCL19, indicating that β-arrestins contribute to the chemokine scavenging activity of ACKR4. By contrast, cells lacking β-arrestins were still capable to take up fluorescently labeled CCL19 demonstrating that β-arrestins are dispensable for chemokine scavenging by ACKR4.
Modulation of chemokine receptor function by cholesterol : new prospects for pharmacological intervention
2017-04, Legler, Daniel F., Matti, Christoph, Laufer, Julia M., Jakobs, Barbara, Purvanov, Vladimir, Uetz-von Allmen, Edith, Thelen, Marcus
Chemokine receptors are seven transmembrane-domain receptors belonging to class A of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The receptors together with their chemokine ligands constitute the chemokine system, which is essential for directing cell migration and plays a crucial role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Given the importance of orchestrating cell migration, it is vital that chemokine receptor signaling is tightly regulated to ensure appropriate responses. Recent studies highlight a key role for cholesterol in modulating chemokine receptor activities. The steroid influences the spatial organization of GPCRs within the membrane bilayer, and consequently can tune chemokine receptor signaling. The effects of cholesterol on organization and function of chemokine receptors and GPCRs in general include direct and indirect effects. Here, we review how cholesterol and some key metabolites modulate the chemokine system functions by multiple ways. We emphasize on the role of cholesterol in chemokine receptor oligomerization, thereby promoting the formation of a signaling hub enabling integration of distinct signaling pathways at the receptor-membrane interface. Moreover, we discuss the role of cholesterol in stabilizing particular receptor conformations and its consequence for chemokine binding. Finally, we highlight how cholesterol accumulation, its deprivation or cholesterol metabolites contribute to modulate cell orchestration during inflammation, upon induction of an adaptive immune response, as well as in dampening the anti-tumor immune response.
Delineating the interactions between the cannabinoid CB2 receptor and its regulatory effectors; β-arrestins and G protein-coupled receptor kinases
2022-05, Patel, Monica, Matti, Christoph, Grimsey, Natasha L., Legler, Daniel F., Javitch, Jonathan A., Finlay, David B., Glass, Michelle
Background and Purpose
The cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2) is a promising therapeutic target for modulating inflammation. However, little is known surrounding the mechanisms underpinning CB2 desensitisation and regulation, particularly the role of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). Here, we evaluated the role of six GRK isoforms in β-arrestin recruitment to CB2. Mutagenesis of several distal C-terminal aspartic acid residues was also performed in an attempt to delineate additional structural elements involved in the regulation of CB2.
In CB2-expressing HEK 293 cells, β-arrestin translocation was measured using real-time BRET assays. G protein dissociation BRET assays were performed to assess the activation and desensitisation of CB2 in the presence of β-arrestin 2.
Overexpression of GRK isoforms 1-6 failed to considerably improve translocation of either β-arrestin 1 or β-arrestin 2 to CB2. Consistent with this, inhibition of endogenous GRK2/3 did not substantially reduce β-arrestin 2 translocation. Mutagenesis of C-terminal aspartic acid residues resulted in attenuation of β-arrestin 2 translocation, which translated to a reduction in desensitisation of G protein activation.
Conclusion and Implications
Our findings suggest that CB2 does not adhere to the classical GPCR regulatory paradigm, entailing GRK- and β-arrestin-mediated desensitisation. Instead, C-terminal aspartic acid residues may act as phospho-mimics to induce β-arrestin activation. This study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms of CB2, which may aid in our understanding of drug tolerance and dependence.
CCR5 deficiency/CCR5Δ32 : resistant to HIV infection at the cost of curtailed CD4+ T cell memory responses
2020-07-08, Matti, Christoph, Legler, Daniel F.
Orchestrated trafficking and activation by pathogen-derived peptides define the ability of CD4+ T helper cells to contribute to an effective adaptive immunity. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Martín-Leal et al show that the inflammatory chemokine receptor CCR5, well known for its role in cell migration and HIV infection, regulates ceramide synthesis and TCR nanoclustering to promote memory CD4+ T cell activation.
Engineering of Nanobodies Recognizing the Human Chemokine Receptor CCR7
2019-05-27, Jakobs, Barbara D., Spannagel, Lisa, Purvanov, Vladimir, Uetz-von Allmen, Edith, Matti, Christoph, Legler, Daniel F.
The chemokine receptor CCR7 plays a pivotal role in health and disease. In particular, CCR7 controls homing of antigen-bearing dendritic cells and T cells to lymph nodes, where adaptive immune responses are initiated. However, CCR7 also guides T cells to inflamed synovium and thereby contributes to rheumatoid arthritis and promotes cancer cell migration and metastasis formation. Nanobodies have recently emerged as versatile tools to study G-protein-coupled receptor functions and are being tested in diagnostics and therapeutics. In this study, we designed a strategy to engineer novel nanobodies recognizing human CCR7. We generated a nanobody library based on a solved crystal structure of the nanobody Nb80 recognizing the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and by specifically randomizing two segments within complementarity determining region 1 (CDR1) and CDR3 of Nb80 known to interact with β2AR. We fused the nanobody library to one half of split-YFP in order to identify individual nanobody clones interacting with CCR7 fused to the other half of split-YFP using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. We present three novel nanobodies, termed Nb1, Nb5, and Nb38, that recognize human CCR7 without interfering with G-protein-coupling and downstream signaling. Moreover, we were able to follow CCR7 trafficking upon CCL19 triggering using Nb1, Nb5, and Nb38.
Mechanosensitive ACKR4 scavenges CCR7 chemokines to facilitate T cell de-adhesion and passive transport by flow in inflamed afferent lymphatics
2022-02-01, Friess, Mona C., Kritikos, Ioannis, Schineis, Philipp, Medina-Sanchez, Jessica Danielly, Gkountidi, Anastasia-Olga, Vallone, Angela, Sigmund, Elena C., Matti, Christoph, Legler, Daniel F., Halin, Cornelia
T cell migration via afferent lymphatics to draining lymph nodes (dLNs) depends on expression of CCR7 in T cells and CCL21 in the lymphatic vasculature. Once T cells have entered lymphatic capillaries, they slowly migrate into contracting collecting vessels. Here, lymph flow picks up, inducing T cell detachment and rapid transport to the dLNs. We find that the atypical chemokine receptor 4 (ACKR4), which binds and internalizes CCL19 and CCL21, is induced by lymph flow in endothelial cells lining lymphatic collectors, enabling them to scavenge these chemokines. In the absence of ACKR4, migration of T cells to dLNs in TPA-induced inflammation is significantly reduced. While entry into capillaries is not impaired, T cells accumulate in the ACKR4-deficient dermal collecting vessel segments. Overall, our findings identify an ACKR4-mediated mechanism by which lymphatic collectors facilitate the detachment of lymph-borne T cells in inflammation and their transition from crawling to free-flow toward the dLNs.
CCL20 is a novel ligand for the scavenging atypical chemokine receptor 4
2020-06-12, Salnikov, Angela, Purvanov, Vladimir, Matti, Christoph, Melgrati, Serena, Spannagel, Lisa, Strobel, Tobias, D'Uonnolo, Giulia, Thelen, Sylvia, Artinger, Marc, Legler, Daniel F.
The chemokine CCL20 is broadly produced by endothelial cells in the liver, the lung, in lymph nodes and mucosal lymphoid tissues, and recruits CCR6 expressing leukocytes, particularly dendritic cells, mature B cells, and subpopulations of T cells. How CCL20 is systemically scavenged is currently unknown. Here, we identify that fluorescently labeled human and mouse CCL20 are efficiently taken-up by the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR4. CCL20 shares ACKR4 with the homeostatic chemokines CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25, although with a lower affinity. We demonstrate that all 4 human chemokines recruit β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2 to human ACKR4. Similarly, mouse CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 equally activate the human receptor. Interestingly, at the same chemokine concentration, mouse CCL20 did not recruit β-arrestins to human ACKR4. Further cross-species analysis suggests that human ACKR4 preferentially takes-up human CCL20, whereas mouse ACKR4 similarly internalizes mouse and human CCL20. Furthermore, we engineered a fluorescently labeled chimeric chemokine consisting of the N-terminus of mouse CCL25 and the body of mouse CCL19, termed CCL25_19, which interacts with and is taken-up by human and mouse ACKR4.
Fluorescently Tagged CCL19 and CCL21 to Monitor CCR7 and ACKR4 Functions
2018-12-04, Purvanov, Vladimir, Matti, Christoph, Samson, Guerric P. B., Kindinger, Ilona, Legler, Daniel F.
Chemokines are essential guidance cues orchestrating cell migration in health and disease. Cognate chemokine receptors sense chemokine gradients over short distances to coordinate directional cell locomotion. The chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 are essential for recruiting CCR7-expressing dendritic cells bearing pathogen-derived antigens and lymphocytes to lymph nodes, where the two cell types meet to launch an adaptive immune response against the invading pathogen. CCR7-expressing cancer cells are also recruited by CCL19 and CCL21 to metastasize in lymphoid organs. In contrast, atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs) do not transmit signals required for cell locomotion but scavenge chemokines. ACKR4 is crucial for internalizing and degrading CCL19 and CCL21 to establish local gradients, which are sensed by CCR7-expressing cells. Here, we describe the production of fluorescently tagged chemokines by fusing CCL19 and CCL21 to monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP). We show that purified CCL19-mRFP and CCL21-mRFP are versatile and powerful tools to study CCR7 and ACKR4 functions, such as receptor trafficking and chemokine scavenging, in a spatiotemporal fashion. We demonstrate that fluorescently tagged CCL19 and CCL21 permit the visualization and quantification of chemokine gradients in real time, while CCR7-expressing leukocytes and cancer cells sense the guidance cues and migrate along the chemokine gradients.