Kopp, Gisela H.
A Comprehensive Overview of Baboon Phylogenetic History
2023-02-28, Kopp, Gisela H., Sithaldeen, Riashna, Trede, Franziska, Grathwol, Franziska, Roos, Christian, Zinner, Dietmar
Baboons (genus Papio) are an intriguing study system to investigate complex evolutionary processes and the evolution of social systems. An increasing number of studies over the last 20 years has shown that considerable incongruences exist between phylogenies based on morphology, mitochondrial, and nuclear sequence data of modern baboons, and hybridization and introgression have been suggested as the main drivers of these patterns. Baboons, therefore, present an excellent opportunity to study these phenomena and their impact on speciation. Advances both in geographic and genomic coverage provide increasing details on the complexity of the phylogeography of baboons. Here, we compile the georeferenced genetic data of baboons and review the current knowledge on baboon phylogeny, discuss the evolutionary processes that may have shaped the patterns that we observe today, and propose future avenues for research.
Alu insertion polymorphisms shared by Papio baboons and Theropithecus gelada reveal an intertwined common ancestry
2019, Walker, Jerilyn A., Jordan, Vallmer E., Storer, Jessica M., Steely, Cody J., Gonzalez-Quiroga, Paulina, Beckstrom, Thomas O., Batzer, Mark A., Kopp, Gisela H., Noll, Angela, Roos, Christian
Baboons (genus Papio) and geladas (Theropithecus gelada) are now generally recognized as close phylogenetic relatives, though morphologically quite distinct and generally classified in separate genera. Primate specific Alu retrotransposons are well-established genomic markers for the study of phylogenetic and population genetic relationships. We previously reported a computational reconstruction of Papio phylogeny using large-scale whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis of Alu insertion polymorphisms. Recently, high coverage WGS was generated for Theropithecus gelada. The objective of this study was to apply the high-throughput "poly-Detect" method to computationally determine the number of Alu insertion polymorphisms shared by T. gelada and Papio, and vice versa, by each individual Papio species and T. gelada. Secondly, we performed locus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays on a diverse DNA panel to complement the computational data.
Insights into the genetic foundation of aggression in Papio and the evolution of two length-polymorphisms in the promoter regions of serotonin-related genes (5-HTTLPR and MAOALPR) in Papionini
2016-12, Kalbitzer, Urs, Roos, Christian, Kopp, Gisela H., Butynski, Thomas M., Knauf, Sascha, Zinner, Dietmar, Fischer, Julia
Aggressive behaviors are an integral part of competitive interactions. There is considerable variation in aggressiveness among individuals both within and among species. Aggressiveness is a quantitative trait that is highly heritable. In modern humans and macaques (Macaca spp.), variation in aggressiveness among individuals is associated with polymorphisms in the serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmitter system. To further investigate the genetics underlying interspecific variation in aggressiveness, 123 wild individuals from five baboon species (Papio papio, P. hamadryas, P. anubis, P. cynocephalus, and P. ursinus) were screened for two polymorphisms in promoter regions of genes relevant for the 5-HT system (5-HTTLPR and MAOALPR).
The comparative genomics and complex population history of Papio baboons
2019-01, Rogers, Jeffrey, Raveendran, Muthuswamy, Harris, R. Alan, Mailund, Thomas, Leppälä, Kalle, Athanasiadis, Georgios, Schierup, Mikkel Heide, Cheng, Jade, Munch, Kasper, Kopp, Gisela H.
Recent studies suggest that closely related species can accumulate substantial genetic and phenotypic differences despite ongoing gene flow, thus challenging traditional ideas regarding the genetics of speciation. Baboons (genus Papio) are Old World monkeys consisting of six readily distinguishable species. Baboon species hybridize in the wild, and prior data imply a complex history of differentiation and introgression. We produced a reference genome assembly for the olive baboon (Papio anubis) and whole-genome sequence data for all six extant species. We document multiple episodes of admixture and introgression during the radiation of Papio baboons, thus demonstrating their value as a model of complex evolutionary divergence, hybridization, and reticulation. These results help inform our understanding of similar cases, including modern humans, Neanderthals, Denisovans, and other ancient hominins.
Disrupted dispersal and its genetic consequences : Comparing protected and threatened baboon populations (Papio papio) in West Africa
2018, Ferreira da Silva, Maria Joana, Kopp, Gisela H., Casanova, Catarina, Godinho, Raquel, Minhós, Tânia, Sá, Rui, Zinner, Dietmar, Bruford, Michael W.
Dispersal is a demographic process that can potentially counterbalance the negative impacts of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation. However, mechanisms of dispersal may become modified in populations living in human-dominated habitats. Here, we investigated dispersal in Guinea baboons (Papio papio) in areas with contrasting levels of anthropogenic fragmentation, as a case study. Using molecular data, we compared the direction and extent of sex-biased gene flow in two baboon populations: from Guinea-Bissau (GB, fragmented distribution, human-dominated habitat) and Senegal (SEN, continuous distribution, protected area). Individual-based Bayesian clustering, spatial autocorrelation, assignment tests and migrant identification suggested female-mediated gene flow at a large spatial scale for GB with evidence of contact between genetically differentiated males at one locality, which could be interpreted as male-mediated gene flow in southern GB. Gene flow was also found to be female-biased in SEN for a smaller scale. However, in the southwest coastal part of GB, at the same geographic scale as SEN, no sex-biased dispersal was detected and a modest or recent restriction in GB female dispersal seems to have occurred. This population-specific variation in dispersal is attributed to behavioural responses to human activity in GB. Our study highlights the importance of considering the genetic consequences of disrupted dispersal patterns as an additional impact of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation and is potentially relevant to the conservation of many species inhabiting human-dominated environments.
Efficient Genome-Wide Sequencing and Low-Coverage Pedigree Analysis from Noninvasively Collected Samples
2016-06-06, Snyder-Mackler, Noah, Majoros, William H., Yuan, Michael L., Shaver, Amanda O., Gordon, Jacob B., Kopp, Gisela H., Schlebusch, Stephen A., Wall, Jeffrey D., Alberts, Susan C., Mukherjee, Sayan, Zhou, Xiang, Tung, Jenny
Research on the genetics of natural populations was revolutionized in the 1990s by methods for genotyping noninvasively collected samples. However, these methods have remained largely unchanged for the past 20 years and lag far behind the genomics era. To close this gap, here we report an optimized laboratory protocol for genome-wide capture of endogenous DNA from noninvasively collected samples, coupled with a novel computational approach to reconstruct pedigree links from the resulting low-coverage data. We validated both methods using fecal samples from 62 wild baboons, including 48 from an independently constructed extended pedigree. We enriched fecal-derived DNA samples up to 40-fold for endogenous baboon DNA and reconstructed near-perfect pedigree relationships even with extremely low-coverage sequencing. We anticipate that these methods will be broadly applicable to the many research systems for which only noninvasive samples are available. The lab protocol and software ("WHODAD") are freely available at www.tung-lab.org/protocols-and-software.html and www.xzlab.org/software.html, respectively.
The Natural History of Model Organisms : Insights into the evolution of social systems and species from baboon studies
2019, Fischer, Julia, Higham, James P., Alberts, Susan C., Barrett, Louise, Beehner, Jacinta C., Bergman, Thore J., Carter, Alecia J., Collins, Anthony, Elton, Sarah, Kopp, Gisela H.
Baboons, members of the genus Papio, comprise six closely related species distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and southwest Arabia. The species exhibit more ecological flexibility and a wider range of social systems than many other primates. This article summarizes our current knowledge of the natural history of baboons and highlights directions for future research. We suggest that baboons can serve as a valuable model for complex evolutionary processes, such as speciation and hybridization. The evolution of baboons has been heavily shaped by climatic changes and population expansion and fragmentation in the African savanna environment, similar to the processes that acted during human evolution. With accumulating long-term data, and new data from previously understudied species, baboons are ideally suited for investigating the links between sociality, health, longevity and reproductive success. To achieve these aims, we propose a closer integration of studies at the proximate level, including functional genomics, with behavioral and ecological studies.
Charting the neglected West : The social system of Guinea baboons
2017, Fischer, Julia, Kopp, Gisela H., Dal Pesco, Federica, Goffe, Adeelia, Hammerschmidt, Kurt, Kalbitzer, Urs, Klapproth, Matthias, Maciej, Peter, Ndao, Ibrahima, Zinner, Dietmar
Primate social systems are remarkably diverse, and thus play a central role in understanding social evolution, including the biological origin of human societies. Although baboons have been prominently featured in this context, historically little was known about the westernmost member of the genus, the Guinea baboon (Papio papio).
Population genetic insights into the social organization of Guinea baboons (Papio papio) : Evidence for female-biased dispersal
2015-08, Kopp, Gisela H., Fischer, Julia, Patzelt, Annika, Roos, Christian, Zinner, Dietmar
Sex differences in philopatry and dispersal have important consequences on the genetic structure of populations, social groups, and social relationships within groups. Among mammals, male dispersal and female philopatry are most common and closely related taxa typically exhibit similar dispersal patterns. However, among four well-studied species of baboons, only hamadryas baboons exhibit female dispersal, thus differing from their congenerics, which show female philopatry and close-knit female social relationships. Until recently, knowledge of the Guinea baboon social system and dispersal pattern remained sparse. Previous observations suggested that the high degree of tolerance observed among male Guinea baboons could be due to kinship. This led us to hypothesize that this species exhibits male philopatry and female dispersal, conforming to the hamadryas pattern. We genotyped 165 individuals from five localities in the Niokolo-Koba National Park, Senegal, at 14 autosomal microsatellite loci and sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVRI) of 55 individuals. We found evidence for higher population structuring in males than in females, as expected if males are the more philopatric sex. A comparison of relatedness between male-male and female-female dyads within and among communities did not yield conclusive results. HVRI diversity within communities was high and did not differ between the sexes, also suggesting female gene flow. Our study is the first comprehensive analysis of the genetic population structure in Guinea baboons and provides evidence for female-biased dispersal in this species. In conjunction with their multilevel social organization, this finding parallels the observations for human hunter-gatherers and strengthens baboons as an intriguing model to elucidate the processes that shaped the highly cooperative societies of Homo.