Gender Stereotypes and Expected Backlash for Female STEM Students in Germany and Japan
2022-01-17, Froehlich, Laura, Tsukamoto, Saori, Morinaga, Yasuko, Sakata, Kiriko, Uchida, Yukiko, Keller, Melanie, Stürmer, Stefan, Martiny, Sarah E., Trommsdorff, Gisela
Although Germany and Japan are top-ranking in STEM, women are underrepresented in the STEM fields of physics, engineering, and computer science in both countries. The current research investigated widespread gender-science stereotypes in STEM in the two countries (Studies 1 and 2) and negative consequences of expected backlash (i.e., imagining negative reactions and lower ascribed communion in scenarios) for women’s emotions and motivation in STEM due to role incongruity and lack-of-fit (Study 3). Studies 1 (N = 87) and 2 (N = 22,556) showed that explicit and implicit gender-science stereotypes are widespread and comparable in Germany and Japan. Study 3 (N = 628) showed that lower ascribed communion was related to less positive emotions, more negative emotions and anxiety emotions, and less study motivation for STEM students (from the fields of physics, engineering, and computer science) from Germany and Japan. Results point to more subtle expected backlash effects for women in STEM than hypothesized. Theoretical and practical implications for gender equality in STEM are discussed.
Teacher Enthusiasm : Reviewing and Redefining a Complex Construct
2016-12, Keller, Melanie, Hoy, Anita Woolfolk, Götz, Thomas, Frenzel, Anne C.
The last review on teacher enthusiasm was 45 years ago, and teacher enthusiasm remains a compelling yet complex variable in the educational context. Since Rosenshine’s (School Review 78:499–514, 1970) review, the conceptualizations, definitions, methodology, and results have only become more scattered, and several related constructs have emerged that may or may not be synonymous with teacher enthusiasm. In this review, we delve into the past four decades of teacher enthusiasm research to provide a potential starting point for a new, consolidated direction in teacher enthusiasm research based on a proposed, holistic definition of enthusiasm which brings together research from the past and can fuel research for the future. We begin by reviewing definitions of teacher enthusiasm and related constructs and, thereafter, put forward a new and integrative definition of teacher enthusiasm that combines the two most prevalent conceptualizations of the construct, namely experienced enjoyment and expressive behavior. Bearing our proposed definition in mind, we go on to present numerous measures that assess teacher enthusiasm, detail research evidence related to its correlates, and finally derive several research implications that, when considered in future research, promise to advance the field.
The Glass Half Empty : How Emotional Exhaustion Affects the State-Trait Discrepancy in Self-Reports of Teaching Emotions
2015, Götz, Thomas, Becker, Eva S., Bieg, Madeleine, Keller, Melanie, Frenzel, Anne C., Hall, Nathan C.
Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers' reports of their trait (habitual) versus state (momentary, "real") emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion) were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions) were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers). In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers' emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed.
The dynamics of real-time classroom emotions : Appraisals mediate the relation between students’ perceptions of teaching and their emotions
2020-08, Götz, Thomas, Keller, Melanie, Lüdtke, Oliver, Nett, Ulrike, Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.
Guided by Pekrun’s (2006) control-value theory of achievement emotions, we investigated the mediating role of control and value appraisals in the relations between students’ perceptions of teaching and their academic emotions. To account for the highly fluctuating and dynamic nature of emotions, we used the experience sampling method complemented by within-person mediation analyses. In 2 studies, n = 122 (Study 1) and n = 149 (Study 2) high school students reported on their real-time perceptions of teaching characteristics (grouped into two second-order factors: supportive presentation style and excessive lesson demands), their control and value (intrinsic and extrinsic) appraisals, and their academic emotions of enjoyment, anxiety, and boredom (n = 1,520/2,669 assessments within students). Across the 2 studies, we found consistent results on the intraindividual level that are in line with an assumption of the control-value theory: Appraisals of control and value mediated the effects of perceived characteristics of teaching on academic emotions (e.g., supportive presentation style showed positive effects on control, which, in turn, showed positive effects on enjoyment). At the same time—and contributing to further developments of the control-value theory—the relative importance of direct and indirect effects (i.e., amount of mediation) differed across emotions. For example, there was a strong direct effect of supportive presentation style on enjoyment, but no effect on anxiety. Similarly, appraisals differed in their relative importance as mediators both within and across emotions (e.g., extrinsic value was mainly relevant for anxiety, whereas intrinsic value contributed to enjoyment and boredom).
The Relationship between Ethnic Classroom Composition and Turkish-Origin and German Students' Reading Performance and Sense of Belonging
2016-07-14, Mok, Sog Yee, Martiny, Sarah E., Gleibs, Ilka H., Keller, Melanie, Froehlich, Laura
Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students' performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Most of the studies did not consider whether an increase in the proportion of migrant students in the classroom has different effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance. For this reason, the present study (N = 9215) extends previous research by investigating the cross-level interaction effect of the proportion of Turkish-origin students in classrooms on Turkish-origin and German students' reading performance with data based on the German National Assessment Study 2008/2009 in the school subject German. In addition, we examined the cross-level interaction effect of Turkish-origin students' proportion on sense of belonging to school for Turkish-origin and German students, as sense of belonging has been shown to be an important predictor of well-being and integration. No cross-level interaction effect on performance emerged. Only a small negative main effect of the Turkish-origin students' proportion on all students' performance was found. As predicted, we showed a cross-level interaction on sense of belonging. Only Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging was positively related to the proportion of Turkish-origin students: The more Turkish-origin students there were in a classroom, the higher Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging. German students' sense of belonging was not related to the ethnic classroom composition. Implications of the results in the educational context are discussed.
Teachers’ positive emotions in the classroom : An intraindividual analysis on their antecedents
2015, Becker, Eva S., Keller, Melanie, Götz, Thomas, Ranellucci, John
Teachers’ emotions are an essential part of instructional settings and are related to a variety of important outcomes, such as well-being and health (e.g., Chang, 2009), classroom effectiveness (e.g., Sutton, 2005), as well as student emotions and motivation (e.g., Bakker, 2005; Becker, Goetz, Morger, & Ranellucci, 2014). Clearly it is important to study the antecedents of teachers’ emotions, particularly when constructing interventions to foster positive affective experiences in class. According to Frenzel et al.’s (2009) reciprocal model on the causes and effects of teacher emotions, teachers’ appraisals of students’ classroom behaviors are important sources of teachers’ emotions. The theory assumes that teachers judge whether or not students’ behavior is aligned with their classroom goals (e.g., cognitive growth, promoting students’ motivation, or maintaining discipline), which influences teachers’ emotional experiences (e.g., experiencing pride when classroom goals are attained). However, to date, these assumptions have not been empirically tested with intra-individual analyses.
In the present study, our aims were (1) to study intra-individual variability in teachers’ positive emotional experiences in the classroom, (2) to investigate how students’ classroom behavior (i.e., performance, motivation, and discipline) is associated with teachers’ emotions, and (3) to examine the mediating role of teachers’ cognitive appraisals.
Secondary-education teachers (N = 31) participated with one of their mathematic classes (N = 587 students) in a diary study for three consecutive weeks (Ø = 9.1 mathematic lessons). Students reported their motivation (3 items, α = .72), discipline (2 items, α = .77) and performance (2 items, α = .66) after each mathematic lesson (this data was aggregated for each class and lesson), and teachers reported their cognitive appraisals (three single items for goal congruence, goal importance, and control beliefs) as well as their enjoyment (2 items, α = .72) and pride (2 items, α = .69) for the same lessons.
Given that our data represents a nested data structure (measurement points within teachers), multilevel path analyses were conducted with MPlus 7.0 software. Results indicate that teachers’ enjoyment and pride showed considerable within person variation with pride having more variance on the between-person-level (ICC = .34) than enjoyment (ICC = .18). Students’ motivation and discipline explained 22% of the variance in teachers’ enjoyment and 21% of the variance in teachers’ pride. Students’ performance was not significantly related to teachers’ emotions. Explained variance increased for enjoyment (56%) and pride (47%) when teachers’ appraisals were integrated into the model. Moreover, appraisals mediated the influence of students’ classroom behavior on teachers’ emotions, except for students’ motivation. The direct effect was reduced but remained significant.
Our results demonstrate that teachers’ emotional experiences are highly situational: Teachers’ enjoyment and pride change from lesson-to-lesson much more than they change from teacher-to-teacher. Furthermore, teachers’ emotions systematically vary according to classroom conditions and cognitive appraisals, with cognitive appraisals being the stronger predictor. A clear implication of these results is that emotions can be greatly influenced by situational appraisals and are not predetermined by personal characteristics or students’ behavior in class.
How Much Trait Variance Is Captured by Measures of Academic State Emotions? : A Latent State-Trait Analysis
2017, Nett, Ulrike, Bieg, Madeleine, Keller, Melanie
Although the popularity of research on academic emotions is on the rise, little is known about the extent to which these emotional experiences are due to stable (trait) versus situational (state) influences. In the present paper, we applied the latent state-trait approach (LST) to multiple state assessments of five frequently experienced discrete academic emotions (enjoyment, pride, anger, anxiety, boredom) to disentangle their trait versus state variance components. We had two main aims: (1) to identify the differential contributions of the person-specific (trait) and situation-specific (state) variance components of discrete academic emotions, and (2) to examine the relations between different discrete academic emotions with regard to their latent trait and latent state residual components. Eight hundred thirty-seven German students participated in this diary study that lasted 2–3 weeks. During this time, students responded to short (two items per emotion) questionnaires asking about their lesson-specific state emotions in mathematics. The results revealed that for each academic emotion the trait variance and state residual components were of about equal size. Further, while differently valenced (positive vs. negative) latent trait components of students’ emotions were mostly uncorrelated (with the exception of boredom), differently valenced latent state residual components of students’ emotions were negatively correlated. We discuss our findings in relation to the structure of current affect and highlight their implications for classroom practices.
Antecedents of teachers’ emotions in the classroom : an intraindividual approach
2015, Becker, Eva S., Keller, Melanie, Götz, Thomas, Frenzel, Anne C., Taxer, Jamie L.
Using a preexisting, but as yet empirically untested theoretical model, the present study investigated antecedents of teachers’ emotions in the classroom. More specifically, the relationships between students’ motivation and discipline and teachers’ enjoyment and anger were explored, as well as if these relationships are mediated by teachers’ subjective appraisals (goal conduciveness and coping potential). The study employed an intraindividual approach by collecting data through a diary. The sample consisted of 39 teachers who each participated with one of their 9th or 10th grade mathematics classes (N = 758 students). Both teachers and students filled out diaries for 2–3 weeks pertaining to 8.10 lessons on average (N = 316 lessons). Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that students’ motivation and discipline explained 24% of variance in teachers’ enjoyment and 26% of variance in teachers’ anger. In line with theoretical assumptions, after introducing teachers’ subjective appraisals as a mediating mechanism into the model, the explained variance systematically increased to 65 and 61%, for teachers’ enjoyment and anger respectively. The effects of students’ motivation and discipline level on teachers’ emotions were partially mediated by teachers’ appraisals of goal conduciveness and coping potential. The findings imply that since teachers’ emotions depend to a large extent on subjective evaluations of a situation, teachers should be able to directly modify their emotional experiences during a lesson through cognitive reappraisals.
Unterschiedlich interessiert : Heterogenität und Variabilität von Schülerinteressen im Fach Mathematik
2015, Keller, Melanie, Bieg, Madeleine, von Detten, Siegmar
Interesse bei Schüler/-innen zu wecken gilt neben dem Erwerb von Kompetenzen als ein zentrales Ziel von Unterricht und Schule. In der Praxis zeigt sich, dass nicht nur eine Klasse sehr heterogen sein kann in den Interessen ihrer Schüler/-innen, sondern dass auch das Interesse einer/-s Schülers/-in von Stunde zu Stunde variieren kann. Auf Basis einer Tagebuchstudie mit 32 Gymnasialklassen, in der Interesse im Fach Mathematik erfasst wurde, präsentieren wir in unserem Beitrag Befunde zum Ausmaß der Heterogenität und Variabilität von Schülerinteresse. Zudem zeigen wir Ergebnisse, welche Faktoren der Unterrichtsgestaltung das Wecken von Interesse in einer Stunde begünstigen. Der Beitrag schließt mit einem Kurzinterview mit Oberstudienrat Siegmar von Detten, der die Befunde vor einem praktischen Hintergrund als Lehrer diskutiert und einschätzt.