Acoustic waves undetectable by transient reflectivity measurements
2017-05-11, He, Chuan, Ristow, Oliver, Grossmann, Martin, Brick, Delia, Guo, Yuning, Schubert, Martin, Hettich, Mike, Gusev, Vitalyi, Dekorsy, Thomas
A free-standing GaAs membrane is investigated by pump-probe reflectivity measurements with femtosecond laser pulses of 400-nm wavelength. It is found that the detected wide spectrum of laser-generated coherent strain waves in the membrane does not contain a specific hypersonic frequency. Theoretical analysis reveals that this effect is related to zero sensitivity of the acousto-optic detection at a particular frequency defined by the wavelength of the probe laser pulse on the mechanical free surface of the GaAs membrane. We predict that a similar behavior is expected in Si and Au membranes and films, indicating that the presence of zeros in the spectral transformation function of acousto-optic conversion is a rather general phenomenon in picosecond ultrasonics that has so far been neglected.
Time-resolved detection of propagating Lamb waves in thin silicon membranes with frequencies up to 197 GHz
2015, Grossmann, Martin, Ristow, Oliver, Hettich, Mike, He, Chuan, Waitz, Reimar, Scheer, Elke, Gusev, Vitalyi, Dekorsy, Thomas, Schubert, Martin
Guided acoustic waves are generated in nanopatterned silicon membranes with aluminum gratings by optical excitation with a femtosecond laser. The spatial modulation of the photoacoustic excitation leads to Lamb waves with wavelengths determined by the grating period. The excited Lamb waves are optically detected for different grating periods and at distances up to several μm between pump and probe spot. The measured frequencies are compared to the theoretical dispersion relation for Lamb waves in thin silicon membranes. Compared to surface acoustic waves in bulk silicon twice higher frequencies for Lamb waves (197 GHz with a 100 nm grating) are generated in a membrane at equal grating periods.
Dynamics of coherent acoustic phonons in thin films of CoSb3 and partially filled YbxCo4Sb12 skutterudites
2014, He, Chuan, Daniel, Marcus, Grossmann, Martin, Ristow, Oliver, Brick, Delia, Schubert, Martin, Albrecht, Manfred, Dekorsy, Thomas
Skutterudites are considered as interesting material for thermoelectric applications. Filling foreign atoms into the cagelike structure of a CoSb3 skutterudite is beneficial to its thermoelectric properties by increasing phonon scattering while maintaining the electrical conductivity. In this paper we demonstrate the generation and detection of coherent acoustic phonons in thin films of CoSb3 and partially filled YbxCo4Sb12 skutterudites using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. By using a pulse-echo method, the longitudinal sound velocity of amorphous and polycrystalline CoSb3 thin films is obtained. For partially filled YbxCo4Sb12 thin films, an obvious decrease of the longitudinal sound velocity is observed at high filling fraction. Concomitantly, the high frequency acoustic phonon modes are strongly damped as the Yb filling fraction increases, which gives direct evidence for acoustic phonon scattering processes. It is shown that the reduction of lattice thermal conductivity after Yb filling is mainly achieved by the strong scattering of acoustic phonons.
Viscoelastic properties and efficient acoustic damping in confined polymer nano-layers at GHz frequencies
2016-09-16, Hettich, Mike, Jacob, Karl, Ristow, Oliver, Schubert, Martin, Bruchhausen, Axel, Gusev, Vitalyi, Dekorsy, Thomas
We investigate the viscoelastic properties of confined molecular nano-layers by time resolved optical pump-probe measurements. Access to the elastic properties is provided by the damping time of acoustic eigenmodes of thin metal films deposited on the molecular nano-layers which show a strong dependence on the molecular layer thickness and on the acoustic eigen-mode frequencies. An analytical model including the viscoelastic properties of the molecular layer allows us to obtain the longitudinal sound velocity as well as the acoustic absorption coefficient of the layer. Our experiments and theoretical analysis indicate for the first time that the molecular nano-layers are much more viscous than elastic in the investigated frequency range from 50 to 120 GHz and thus show pronounced acoustic absorption. The longitudinal acoustic wavenumber has nearly equal real and imaginary parts, both increasing proportional to the square root of the frequency. Thus, both acoustic velocity and acoustic absorption are proportional to the square root of frequency and the propagation of compressional/dilatational acoustic waves in the investigated nano-layers is of the diffusional type, similar to the propagation of shear waves in viscous liquids and thermal waves in solids.
Collective Modes and Structural Modulation in Ni-Mn-Ga(Co) Martensite Thin Films Probed by Femtosecond Spectroscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
2015, Schubert, Martin, Schäfer, Hanjo, Mayer, Jan, Laptev, Aleksej, Hettich, Mike, Merklein, Moritz, He, Chuan, Rummel, C., Ristow, Oliver, Grossmann, Martin, Luo, Yuan, Gusev, Vitaly, Samwer, Konrad, Fonin, Mikhail, Dekorsy, Thomas, Demsar, Jure
The origin of the martensitic transition in the magnetic shape memory alloy Ni-Mn-Ga has been widely discussed. While several studies suggest it is electronically driven, the adaptive martensite model reproduced the peculiar nonharmonic lattice modulation. We used femtosecond spectroscopy to probe the temperature and doping dependence of collective modes, and scanning tunneling microscopy revealed the corresponding static modulations. We show that the martensitic phase can be described by a complex charge-density wave tuned by magnetic ordering and strong electron-lattice coupling.
Phase Transitions in Co-Doped NiMnGa Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys Probed by Coherent Phonons
2014, Dekorsy, Thomas, Schubert, Martin, Mayer, Jan, Hettich, Mike, Schäfer, Hanjo, Laptev, Alexej, Merklein, Moritz, He, Chuan, Grossmann, Martin, Ristow, Oliver, Luo, Yuanson, Gusev, Vitalyi, Demsar, Jure, Fonin, Mikhail, Samwer, Konrad
We investigate undoped and Co-doped NiMnGa magnetic shape memory alloys by ultrafast spectroscopy. The temperature dependence of collective modes is explained on the base of a charge-density-wave excitation shining new light on the phase transition.
Generation and detection of gigahertz acoustic oscillations in thin membranes
2015, Schubert, Martin, Grossmann, Martin, He, Chuan, Brick, Delia, Scheel, Patricia, Ristow, Oliver, Gusev, Vitalyi, Dekorsy, Thomas
Single crystalline membranes are a perfect model system for the study of coherent acoustic phonon generation and decay in the time domain. Coherent acoustical modes are excited and detected in thin single-crystalline silicon and gallium arsenide membranes with femtosecond pulses in the ultraviolet and infrared wavelength region using the asynchronous optical sampling technique. The measured acoustic spectra are compared with each other and are discussed in terms of different generation and detection mechanisms. A clear dependence of the generated spectra on the absorption length of the pump and probe pulses is observed. It is shown that a short absorption length for the pump pulse leads to the generation of coherent high frequency phonons up to several 100 GHz frequencies. Membranes are demonstrated to be useful as broadband acoustic cavities and can help to disentangle details of high frequency phonon dynamics. Two-layer membrane systems offer additional insight into energy transfer in the GHz frequency range and adhesion properties.
Femtosecond spectroscopy of acoustic frequency combs in the 100-GHz frequency range in Al/Si membranes
2013, Grossmann, Martin, Klingele, Matthias, Scheel, Patricia, Ristow, Oliver, Hettich, Mike, He, Chuan, Waitz, Reimar, Schubert, Martin, Bruchhausen, Axel, Gusev, Vitalyi, Scheer, Elke, Dekorsy, Thomas
Acoustic frequency combs are optically excited and detected in silicon membranes covered with thin aluminum layers by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The various frequency combs consist of 11 up to 45 modes ranging in frequency from 10 up to 500 GHz. Evaluating the different modes of the combs allows us to quantify the dynamic properties of this two-layer system with great precision. Deviations of the frequencies of higher modes from a linear relation can be quantitatively understood. The time domain traces show clearly defined pulses which are detected in regular time intervals after each roundtrip in the acoustic cavity formed by the membrane and the metal film. By analyzing the individual reflected pulses and their evolution in time, damping times for the whole frequency range are determined. We analytically derive a deviation of the individual comb modes from integer values of the fundamental frequency which is corroborated by the experiments.