PIP5KIγ90 generated phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate promotes uptake of Staphylococcus aureus by host cells
2021-11, Shi, Yong, Berking, Anne D., Baade, Timo, Legate, Kyle R, Fässler, Reinhard, Hauck, Christof R.
Staphylococcus aureus, a gram-positive pathogen, invades cells mainly in an integrin-dependent manner. As the activity or conformation of several integrin-associated proteins can be regulated by phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI-4,5-P2 ), we investigated the roles of PI-4,5-P2 and PI-4,5-P2 -producing enzymes in cellular invasion by S. aureus. PI-4,5-P2 accumulated upon contact of S. aureus with the host cell and targeting of an active PI-4,5-P2 phosphatase to the plasma membrane reduced bacterial invasion. Knockdown of individual phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinases revealed that phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase γ (PIP5KIγ) plays an important role in bacterial internalization. Specific ablation of the talin and FAK binding motif in PIP5KIγ90 reduced bacterial invasion, which could be rescued by re-expression of an active, but not inactive PIP5KIγ90. Furthermore, PIP5KIγ90-deficient cells showed normal basal PI-4,5-P2 levels in the plasma membrane but reduced accumulation of PI-4,5-P2 and talin at sites of S. aureus attachment, and overall lower levels of FAK phosphorylation. These results highlight the importance of local synthesis of PI-4,5-P2 by a focal adhesion-associated lipid kinase for integrin-mediated internalization of S. aureus.
Clustering of integrin β cytoplasmic domains triggers nascent adhesion formation and reveals a protozoan origin of the integrin-talin interaction
2019-04-05, Baade, Timo, Paone, Christoph, Baldrich, Adrian, Hauck, Christof R.
Integrins and integrin-dependent cell-matrix adhesions are essential for a number of physiological processes. Integrin function is tightly regulated via binding of cytoplasmic proteins to integrin intracellular domains. Yet, the complexity of cell-matrix adhesions in mammals, with more than 150 core adhesome proteins, complicates the analysis of integrin-associated protein complexes. Interestingly, the evolutionary origin of integrins dates back before the transition from unicellular life to complex multicellular animals. Though unicellular relatives of metazoa have a less complex adhesome, nothing is known about the initial steps of integrin activation and adhesion complex assembly in protozoa. Therefore, we developed a minimal, microscope-based system using chimeric integrins to investigate receptor-proximal events during focal adhesion assembly. Clustering of the human integrin β1 tail led to recruitment of talin, kindlin, and paxillin and mutation of the known talin binding site abolished recruitment of this protein. Proteins indirectly linked to integrins, such as vinculin, migfilin, p130CAS, or zyxin were not enriched around the integrin β1 tail. With the exception of integrin β4 and integrin β8, the cytoplasmic domains of all human integrin β subunits supported talin binding. Likewise, the cytoplasmic domains of integrin β subunits expressed by the protozoan Capsaspora owczarzaki readily recruited talin and this interaction was based on an evolutionary conserved NPXY/F amino acid motif. The results we present here validate the use of our novel microscopic assay to uncover details of integrin-based protein-protein interactions in a cellular context and suggest that talin binding to integrin β cytoplasmic tails is an ancient feature of integrin regulation.
The role of paxillin in integrin-mediated signaling events
2021, Baade, Timo
Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that were key to the dawn of metazoa. In multicellular animals they are widely expressed in all organs and tissue. There, they provide a link between the extracellular matrix and the cell’s actin cytoskeleton. They are used as physical anchorage points that fix the cells to the underlying substrate and mediate bidirectional signaling across the cell membrane. Integrins are thus necessary to respond to biophysical and biochemical changes in the extracellular environment. They govern cell differentiation, proliferation, survival, cell migration, embryonic development, immune defense as well as thrombus formation. Since their discovery in the early 80’s, their ubiquitous expression and their crucial role in both health and disease made them one of the most intensely investigated proteins of the human body. Upon ECM engagement integrins recruit a large, multimeric protein complex, called focal adhesions (FAs). FAs make up a complex network, consisting of several hundreds of proteins and thousands of protein-protein interactions. This complex is also referred to as the integrin adhesome. At the core of these complexes are a number of scaffolding and adaptor proteins. One of them is the “über-linker” paxillin, which mediates a vast number of protein interactions and regulates the controlled assembly and disassembly of FAs as well as actin cytoskeleton remodeling for efficient cell migration. The immense complexity of this network, its dynamic nature but also the redundancy that exists between multiple protein isoforms, makes it notoriously hard to study those structures. In the first two chapters we present novel tools to reduce the complexity and redundancies of the system. These tools are then applied in chapter III to reveal a novel feature of the adaptor protein paxillin. In the first study, a novel approach for the microscopic evaluation of protein-protein interactions at integrin clusters is presented. This approach, called Opa protein triggered integrin clustering (OPTIC), uses bacteria as multivalent ligands to cluster chimeric integrin receptors and induce minimal versions of the focal adhesion complex. These clusters solely depend on the short cytoplasmic tail of integrins and are independent of endogenous integrin ligands. They don’t rely on force generation and recruit only a small fraction of the integrin adhesome. Due to their drastically reduced complexity and their easy manipulability, these structures can be used to investigate protein-protein interactions and can be applied to verify biochemical data in a cellular context. Using integrin orthologues from a unicellular ancestor of metazoa, the OPTIC is utilized to proof the evolutionary conservation of the talin-integrin interaction. The second study uses a novel streamlined approach for the rapid disruption of multiple genes and subsequent generation of stable re-expression cell lines. The workflow is applied to simultaneously delete two members of the paxillin family, paxillin and Hic-5, which have both distinct and redundant functions. Biochemical and morphological analysis of the generated cell lines reveal a phenotype that is surprisingly different from previously described single knockout cells. The double knockout cell lines were then used to characterize an important role for paxillin and Hic-5 in host cell invasion of the opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Paxillin is one of the first proteins to localize to FAs and its localization is a prerequisite for its function. FA targeting is mediated via its C-terminal LIM2 and LIM3 domains. Yet, the exact mechanism of its recruitment is not entirely clear. In the last chapter we use 3D NMR measurements to solve the structure of paxillin’s LIM2/3 domain and identify a direct interaction with the cytoplasmic tails of integrin beta1 and beta3. We apply a combination of biochemical assays and the OPTIC presented in chapter I, to determine the binding interface of both proteins. Reverse genetics verify our findings in a cellular context and reveal an important role for the LIM3-integrin beta3 interaction in FA maturation and cell spreading.
Detection of SARS-CoV-2 from raw patient samples by coupled high temperature reverse transcription and amplification
2020, Kuiper, Johannes W. P., Baade, Timo, Kremer, Marcel, Kranaster, Ramon, Irmisch, Linda, Schuchmann, Marcus, Zander, Johannes, Marx, Andreas, Hauck, Christof R.
SARS-CoV-2 is spreading globally with unprecedented consequences for modern societies. The early detection of infected individuals is a pre-requisite to contain the virus. Currently, purification of RNA from patient samples followed by RT-PCR is the gold standard to assess the presence of this single-strand RNA virus. However, these procedures are time consuming, require continuous supply of specialized reagents, and are prohibitively expensive in resource-poor settings. Here, we report an improved nucleic-acid-based approach to detect SARS-CoV-2 with the ability to detect as little as five viral genome equivalents. The approach delivers results without the need to purify RNA, reduces handling steps, minimizes costs, and allows evaluation by non-specialized equipment. The use of unprocessed swap samples is enabled by employing a heat-stable RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase, which performs the double task of stringent reverse transcription of RNA at elevated temperatures as well as PCR amplification of a SARS-CoV-2 specific target gene. As results are obtained within 2 hours and can be read-out by a hand-held LED-screen, this novel protocol will be of particular importance for large-scale virus surveillance in economically constrained settings.