Controlling and measuring dynamic odorant stimuli in the laboratory
2019-11-29, Gorur-Shandilya, Srinivas, Martelli, Carlotta, Demir, Mahmut, Emonet, Thierry
Animals experience complex odorant stimuli that vary widely in composition, intensity and temporal properties. However, stimuli used to study olfaction in the laboratory are much simpler. This mismatch arises from the challenges in measuring and controlling them precisely and accurately. Even simple pulses can have diverse kinetics that depend on their molecular identity. Here, we introduce a model that describes how stimulus kinetics depend on the molecular identity of the odorant and the geometry of the delivery system. We describe methods to deliver dynamic odorant stimuli of several types, including broadly distributed stimuli that reproduce some of the statistics of naturalistic plumes, in a reproducible and precise manner. Finally, we introduce a method to calibrate a photo-ionization detector to any odorant it can detect, using no additional components. Our approaches are affordable and flexible and can be used to advance our understanding of how olfactory neurons encode real-world odor signals.
Slow presynaptic mechanisms that mediate adaptation in the olfactory pathway of Drosophila
2019-06-10, Martelli, Carlotta, Fiala, André
The olfactory system encodes odor stimuli as combinatorial activity of populations of neurons whose response depends on stimulus history. How and on which timescales previous stimuli affect these combinatorial representations remains unclear. We use in vivo optical imaging in Drosophila to analyze sensory adaptation at the first synaptic step along the olfactory pathway. We show that calcium signals in the axon terminals of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) do not follow the same adaptive properties as the firing activity measured at the antenna. While ORNs calcium responses are sustained on long timescales, calcium signals in the postsynaptic projection neurons (PNs) adapt within tens of seconds. We propose that this slow component of the postsynaptic response is mediated by a slow presynaptic depression of vesicle release and enables the combinatorial population activity of PNs to adjust to the mean and variance of fluctuating odor stimuli.