Communicating for the Safe Use of Medicines : Progress and Directions for the 2020s Promoted by the Special Interest Group of the International Society of Pharmacovigilance
2023, Bahri, Priya, Bowring, Geoffrey, Edwards, Brian D., Anton, Christopher, Aronson, Jeffrey K., Caro-Rojas, Angela, Hugman, Bruce P. J., Mol, Peter G., Gaissmaier, Wolfgang, Neth, Hansjörg
Determinants of information diffusion in online communication on vaccination : The benefits of visual displays
2021, Giese, Helge, Neth, Hansjörg, Gaissmaier, Wolfgang
Social media are an increasingly important source of information on the benefits and risks of vaccinations, but the high prevalence of misinformation provides challenges for informed vaccination decisions. It is therefore important to understand which messages are likely to diffuse online and why, and how relevant aspects—such as scientific facts on vaccination effectiveness—can be made more comprehensible and more likely to be shared. In two studies, we (i) explore which characteristics of messages on flu vaccination facilitate their diffusion in online communication, and (ii) whether visual displays (i.e., icon arrays) facilitate the comprehension and diffusion of scientific effectiveness information.
In Study 1, 208 participants each rated a random sample of 15 out of 63 messages on comprehensibility, trustworthiness, persuasiveness, familiarity, informativeness, valence, and arousal, and then reported which information they would share with subsequent study participants. In Study 2 (N = 758), we employed the same rating procedure for a selected set of 9 messages and experimentally manipulated how scientific effectiveness information was displayed.
Study 1 illustrated that scientific effectiveness information was difficult to understand and thus did not diffuse well. Study 2 demonstrated that visual displays improved the understanding of this information, which could, in turn, increase its social impact.
The comprehensibility of scientific information is an important prerequisite for its diffusion. Visual displays can facilitate informed vaccination decisions by rendering important information on vaccination effectiveness more transparent and increasing the willingness to share this information.
Interactive coin addition : how hands can help us think
2011, Neth, Hansjörg, Payne, Stephen J.
Does using our hands help us to add the value of a set of coins? We test the benefits and costs of direct interaction with a men- tal arithmetic task in a computerized yoked design in which groups of participants vary in their interactive mode (move vs. look) and the initial configuration of coins (pseudo-random vs. another mover’s final layout). By assessing performance and conducting a microgenetic analysis of the strategies employed we argue that the purpose of movement is the result, rather than the process of moving. Participants move coins in order to sort, rather than to mark, and select them by value, rather than by location. They spontaneously create remarkably smart solutions, thereby incidentally creating physical configurations that can help other problem solvers.
Perspectives on the 2×2 Matrix : Solving Semantically Distinct Problems Based on a Shared Structure of Binary Contingencies
2021-02-09, Neth, Hansjörg, Gradwohl, Nico, Streeb, Dirk, Keim, Daniel A., Gaissmaier, Wolfgang
Cognition is both empowered and limited by representations. The matrix lens model explicates tasks that are based on frequency counts, conditional probabilities, and binary contingencies in a general fashion. Based on a structural analysis of such tasks, the model links several problems and semantic domains and provides a new perspective on representational accounts of cognition that recognizes representational isomorphs as opportunities, rather than as problems. The shared structural construct of a 2×2 matrix supports a set of generic tasks and semantic mappings that provide a unifying framework for understanding problems and defining scientific measures. Our model's key explanatory mechanism is the adoption of particular perspectives on a 2×2 matrix that categorizes the frequency counts of cases by some condition, treatment, risk, or outcome factor. By the selective steps of filtering, framing, and focusing on specific aspects, the measures used in various semantic domains negotiate distinct trade-offs between abstraction and specialization. As a consequence, the transparent communication of such measures must explicate the perspectives encapsulated in their derivation. To demonstrate the explanatory scope of our model, we use it to clarify theoretical debates on biases and facilitation effects in Bayesian reasoning and to integrate the scientific measures from various semantic domains within a unifying framework. A better understanding of problem structures, representational transparency, and the role of perspectives in the scientific process yields both theoretical insights and practical applications.
The echo in flu-vaccination echo chambers : Selective attention trumps social influence
2020-02, Giese, Helge, Neth, Hansjörg, Moussaïd, Mehdi, Betsch, Cornelia, Gaissmaier, Wolfgang
Online discussions may impact the willingness to get vaccinated. This experiment tests how groups of individuals with consistent and inconsistent attitudes towards flu vaccination attend to and convey information online, and how they alter their corresponding risk perceptions.
Out of 1859 MTurkers, we pre-selected 208 people with negative and 221 people with positive attitudes towards flu vaccinations into homogeneous or heterogeneous 3-link experimental diffusion chains. We assessed (i) which information about flu vaccinations participants conveyed to the subsequent link, (ii) how flu-vaccination related perceptions were altered by incoming messages, and (iii) how participants perceived incoming information.
Participants (i) selectively conveyed attitude-consistent information, but exhibited no overall anti-vaccination bias, (ii) were reluctant to alter their flu-vaccination related perceptions in response to messages, and (iii) evaluated incoming information consistent with their prior attitudes as more convincing.
Flu-vaccination related perceptions are resilient against contradictions and bias online communication. Contrary to expectations, there was no sign of amplification of anti-vaccine attitudes by online communication.
Making robust classification decisions : constructing and evaluating Fast and Frugal Trees (FFTs)
2013, Neth, Hansjörg, Czienskowski, Uwe, Schooler, Lael J., Gluck, Kevin
Fast and Frugal Trees (FFTs) are a quintessential family of simple heuristics that allow effective and efficient binary clas- sification decisions and often perform remarkably well when compared to more complex methods. This half-day tutorial will familiarize participants with examples of FFTs and elu- cidate the theoretical link between FFTs and signal detection theory (SDT). A range of presentations, practical exercises and interactive tools will enable participants to construct and eval- uate FFTs for different data sets.
Task-based Visual Interactive Modeling : Decision Trees and Rule-based Classifiers
2021-01-13, Streeb, Dirk, Metz, Yannick, Schlegel, Udo, Schneider, Bruno, El-Assady, Mennatallah, Neth, Hansjörg, Chen, Min, Keim, Daniel A.
Visual analytics enables the coupling of machine learning models and humans in a tightly integrated workflow, addressing various analysis tasks. Each task poses distinct demands to analysts and decision-makers. In this survey, we focus on one canonical technique for rule-based classification, namely decision tree classifiers. We provide an overview of available visualizations for decision trees with a focus on how visualizations differ with respect to 16 tasks. Further, we investigate the types of visual designs employed, and the quality measures presented. We find that (i) interactive visual analytics systems for classifier development offer a variety of visual designs, (ii) utilization tasks are sparsely covered, (iii) beyond classifier development, node-link diagrams are omnipresent, (iv) even systems designed for machine learning experts rarely feature visual representations of quality measures other than accuracy. In conclusion, we see a potential for integrating algorithmic techniques, mathematical quality measures, and tailored interactive visualizations to enable human experts to utilize their knowledge more effectively.
FFTrees : A toolbox to create, visualize, and evaluate fast-and-frugal decision trees
2017, Phillips, Nathaniel D., Neth, Hansjörg, Woike, Jan K., Gaissmaier, Wolfgang
Fast-and-frugal trees (FFTs) are simple algorithms that facilitate efficient and accurate decisions based on limited information. But despite their successful use in many applied domains, there is no widely available toolbox that allows anyone to easily create, visualize, and evaluate FFTs. We fill this gap by introducing the R package FFTrees. In this paper, we explain how FFTs work, introduce a new class of algorithms called fan for constructing FFTs, and provide a tutorial for using the FFTrees package. We then conduct a simulation across ten real-world datasets to test how well FFTs created by FFTrees can predict data. Simulation results show that FFTs created by FFTrees can predict data as well as popular classification algorithms such as regression and random forests, while remaining simple enough for anyone to understand and use.
How Healthy Aging and Dementia Impact Memory Search
2013, Morais, Ana Sofia, Neth, Hansjörg, Hills, Thomas
We model the semantic recall sequences of 424 older adults aged between 69 to 103 years in the animal fluency task. Our results suggest that, under normal intellectual functioning, memory search in old age (69–84 years) is consistent with a dynamic process that switches between retrieval probes. With dementia and very old age (85–103 years), however, memory search seems to become more consistent with a static process that activates items in memory as a function of their frequency. The weight that probes have in determining the activation of items in memory seems to be an informative signature of the impact of healthy aging and dementia on memory search. Our results show that, with healthy aging and dementia, the activation of items in memory is increasingly more determined by the frequency of past experience with those items.