## Person: Gorbonos, Dan

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#### A simple cognitive model explains movement decisions in zebrafish while following leaders

2023-05-04, Oscar, Lital, Li, Liang, Gorbonos, Dan, Couzin, Iain D., Gov, Nir S., Lital, Oscar

While moving, animals must frequently make decisions about their future travel direction, whether they are alone or in a group. Here we investigate this process for zebrafish (Danio rerio), which naturally move in cohesive groups. Employing state-of-the-art virtual reality, we study how real fish follow one or several moving, virtual conspecifics (leaders). These data are used to inform, and test, a model of social response that includes a process of explicit decision-making, whereby the fish can decide which of the virtual conspecifics to follow, or to follow in some average direction. This approach is in contrast with previous models where the direction of motion was based on a continuous computation, such as directional averaging. Building upon a simplified version of this model [Sridhar et al., 2021], which was limited to a one-dimensional projection of the fish motion, we present here a model that describes the motion of the real fish as it swims freely in two-dimensions. Motivated by experimental observations, the swim speed of the fish in this model uses a burst and-coast swimming pattern, with the burst frequency being dependent on the distance of the fish from the followed conspecific(s). We demonstrate that this model is able to explain the observed spatial distribution of the real fish behind the virtual conspecifics in the experiments, as a function of their average speed and number. In particular, the model naturally explains the observed critical bifurcations for a freely swimming fish, which appear in the spatial distributions whenever the fish makes a decision to follow only one of the virtual conspecifics, instead of following them as an averaged group. This model can provide the foundation for modeling a cohesive shoal of swimming fish, while explicitly describing their directional decision-making process at the individual level.

#### Stable swarming using adaptive long-range interactions

2017-04, Gorbonos, Dan, Gov, Nir S.

Sensory mechanisms in biology, from cells to humans, have the property of adaptivity, whereby the response produced by the sensor is adapted to the overall amplitude of the signal, reducing the sensitivity in the presence of strong stimulus, while increasing it when it is weak. This property is inherently energy consuming and a manifestation of the nonequilibrium nature of living organisms. We explore here how adaptivity affects the effective forces that organisms feel due to others in the context of a uniform swarm, in both two and three dimensions. The interactions between the individuals are taken to be attractive and long-range and of power-law form. We find that the effects of adaptivity inside the swarm are dramatic, where the effective forces decrease (or remain constant) with increasing swarm density. Linear stability analysis demonstrates how this property prevents collapse (Jeans instability), when the forces are adaptive. Adaptivity therefore endows swarms with a natural mechanism for self-stabilization.

#### Evaluating the Wald Entropy from two-derivative terms in quadratic actions

2011-06-22T08:55:59Z, Brustein, Ram, Gorbonos, Dan, Hadad, Merav, Medved, A. J. M.

We evaluate the Wald Noether charge entropy for a black hole in generalized theories of gravity. Expanding the Lagrangian to second order in gravitational perturbations, we show that contributions to the entropy density originate only from the coefficients of two-derivative terms. The same considerations are extended to include matter fields and to show that arbitrary powers of matter fields and their symmetrized covariant derivatives cannot contribute to the entropy density. We also explain how to use the linearized gravitational field equation rather than quadratic actions to obtain the same results. Several explicit examples are presented that allow us to clarify subtle points in the derivation and application of our method.

#### Wald's entropy is equal to a quarter of the horizon area in units of the effective gravitational coupling

2009, Brustein, Ram, Gorbonos, Dan, Hadad, Merav

The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of black holes in Einstein’s theory of gravity is equal to a quarter of the horizon area in units of Newton’s constant. Wald has proposed that in general theories of gravity the entropy of stationary black holes with bifurcate Killing horizons is a Noether charge which is in general different from the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We show that the Noether charge entropy is equal to a quarter of the horizon area in units of the effective gravitational coupling on the horizon defined by the coefficient of the kinetic term of a specific metric perturbation polarization on the horizon. We present several explicit examples of static spherically symmetric black holes.

#### The geometry of decision-making in individuals and collectives

2021-12-14, Sridhar, Vivek H., Li, Liang, Gorbonos, Dan, Nagy, Mate, Schell, Bianca Ricarda, Sorochkin, Timothy, Gov, Nir S, Couzin, Iain D.

Choosing among spatially distributed options is a central challenge for animals, from deciding among alternative potential food sources or refuges to choosing with whom to associate. Using an integrated theoretical and experimental approach (employing immersive virtual reality), we consider the interplay between movement and vectorial integration during decision-making regarding two, or more, options in space. In computational models of this process, we reveal the occurrence of spontaneous and abrupt "critical" transitions (associated with specific geometrical relationships) whereby organisms spontaneously switch from averaging vectorial information among, to suddenly excluding one among, the remaining options. This bifurcation process repeats until only one option-the one ultimately selected-remains. Thus, we predict that the brain repeatedly breaks multichoice decisions into a series of binary decisions in space-time. Experiments with fruit flies, desert locusts, and larval zebrafish reveal that they exhibit these same bifurcations, demonstrating that across taxa and ecological contexts, there exist fundamental geometric principles that are essential to explain how, and why, animals move the way they do.

#### Long-range acoustic interactions in insect swarms : an adaptive gravity model

2016-07-22, Gorbonos, Dan, Ianconescu, Reuven, Puckett, James G., Ni, Rui, Ouellette, Nicholas T., Gov, Nir S.

The collective motion of groups of animals emerges from the net effect of the interactions between individual members of the group. In many cases, such as birds, fish, or ungulates, these interactions are mediated by sensory stimuli that predominantly arise from nearby neighbors. But not all stimuli in animal groups are short range. Here, we consider mating swarms of midges, which are thought to interact primarily via long-range acoustic stimuli.Weexploit the similarity in form between the decay of acoustic and gravitational sources to build a model for swarm behavior. By accounting for the adaptive nature of the midges’ acoustic sensing, we show that our ‘adaptive gravity’ model makes mean-field predictions that agree well with experimental observations of laboratory swarms. Our results highlight the role of sensory mechanisms and interaction range in collective animal behavior. Additionally, the adaptive interactions that we present here open a new class of equations of motion, which may appear in other biological contexts.

#### The Weak Gravity Conjecture and the Viscosity Bound with Six-Derivative Corrections

2010-05-26T00:52:39Z, Amsel, Aaron J., Gorbonos, Dan

The weak gravity conjecture and the shear viscosity to entropy density bound place constraints on low energy effective field theories that may help to distinguish which theories can be UV completed. Recently, there have been suggestions of a possible correlation between the two constraints. In some interesting cases, the behavior was precisely such that the conjectures were mutually exclusive. Motivated by these works, we study the mass to charge and shear viscosity to entropy density ratios for charged AdS5 black branes, which are holographically dual to four-dimensional CFTs at finite temperature. We study a family of four-derivative and six-derivative perturbative corrections to these backgrounds. We identify the region in parameter space where the two constraints are satisfied and in particular find that the inclusion of the next-to-leading perturbative correction introduces wider possibilities for the satisfaction of both constraints.

#### Spatiotemporal dynamics of animal contests arise from effective forces between contestants

2021-12-07, Haluts, Amir, Garza Reyes, Sylvia F., Gorbonos, Dan, Etheredge, Robert Ian, Jordan, Alex, Gov, Nir S.

Competition among animals for resources, notably food, territories, and mates, is ubiquitous at all scales of life. This competition is often resolved through contests among individuals, which are commonly understood according to their outcomes and in particular, how these outcomes depend on decision-making by the contestants. Because they are restricted to end-point predictions, these approaches cannot predict real-time or real-space dynamics of animal contest behavior. This limitation can be overcome by studying systems that feature typical contest behavior while being simple enough to track and model. Here, we propose to use such systems to construct a theoretical framework that describes real-time movements and behaviors of animal contestants. We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of contests in an orb-weaving spider, in which all the common elements of animal contests play out. The confined arena of the web, on which interactions are dominated by vibratory cues in a two-dimensional space, simplifies the analysis of interagent interactions. We ask whether these seemingly complex decision-makers can be modeled as interacting active particles responding only to effective forces of attraction and repulsion due to their interactions. By analyzing the emergent dynamics of “contestant particles,” we provide mechanistic explanations for real-time dynamical aspects of animal contests, thereby explaining competitive advantages of larger competitors and demonstrating that complex decision-making need not be invoked in animal contests to achieve adaptive outcomes. Our results demonstrate that physics-based classification and modeling, in terms of effective rules of interaction, provide a powerful framework for understanding animal contest behaviors.

#### A Wald-like Formula for Energy

2012-09-07, Amsel, Aaron J., Gorbonos, Dan

We present a simple "Wald-like" formula for gravitational energy about a constant curvature background spacetime. The formula is derived following the Abbott-Deser-Tekin approach for the definition of conserved asymptotic charges in higher-derivative gravity.

#### Fundamental strings and higher derivative corrections to d-dimensional black holes

2010, Giveon, Amit, Gorbonos, Dan, Stern, Merav

We study aspects of d-dimensional black holes with two electric charges, corresponding to fundamental strings with generic momentum and winding on an internal circle. The perturbative α′ corrections to such black holes and their gravitational thermodynamics are obtained. The latter are derived using the Euclidean approach and the Wald formula for the entropy. We find that the entropy and the charge/mass ratio of black holes increase in α′ for any mass and charges, and in all dimensions.