Reber, Julia M.
PARP1 and XRCC1 exhibit a reciprocal relationship in genotoxic stress response
2023, Reber, Julia M., Božić-Petković, Jovana, Lippmann, Michelle, Mazzardo, Marvin, Dilger, Asisa, Warmers, Rebecca, Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin
PARP1 (aka ARTD1) acts as a prime sensor of cellular genotoxic stress response. PARP1 detects DNA strand breaks and subsequently catalyzes the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which leads to the recruitment of the scaffold protein XRCC1 during base excision and single strand break repair and the assembly of multi-protein complexes to promote DNA repair. Here, we reveal that the recruitment of either protein to sites of DNA damage is impeded in the absence of the other, indicating a strong reciprocal relationship between the two DNA repair factors during genotoxic stress response. We further analyzed several cellular and molecular endpoints in HeLa PARP1 KO, XRCC1 KO, and PARP1/XRCC1 double KO (DKO) cells after genotoxic treatments, i.e., PARylation response, NAD+ levels, clonogenic survival, cell cycle progression, cell death, and DNA repair. The analysis of NAD+ levels and cytotoxicity after treatment with the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin revealed a hypersensitivity phenotype of XRCC1 KO cells compared to PARP1 KO cells-an effect that could be rescued by the additional genetic deletion of PARP1 as well as by pharmacological PARP inhibition. Moreover, impaired repair of hydrogen peroxide and CPT-induced DNA damage in XRCC1 KO cells could be partially rescued by additional deletion of PARP1. Our results therefore highlight important reciprocal regulatory functions of XRCC1 and PARP1 during genotoxic stress response.
PARP1 catalytic variants reveal branching and chain length-specific functions of poly(ADP-ribose) in cellular physiology and stress response
2020-10-09, Aberle, Lisa, Krüger, Annika, Reber, Julia M., Lippmann, Michelle, Schmalz, Michael, Trussina, Irmela R.E.A., Schlesiger, Sarah, Zubel, Tabea, Schütz, Karina, Marx, Andreas, Ferrando-May, Elisa, Bürkle, Alexander, Mangerich, Aswin
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation regulates numerous cellular processes like genome maintenance and cell death, thus providing protective functions but also contributing to several pathological conditions. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) molecules exhibit a remarkable heterogeneity in chain lengths and branching frequencies, but the biological significance of this is basically unknown. To unravel structure-specific functions of PAR, we used PARP1 mutants producing PAR of different qualities, i.e. short and hypobranched (PARP1\G972R), short and moderately hyperbranched (PARP1\Y986S), or strongly hyperbranched PAR (PARP1\Y986H). By reconstituting HeLa PARP1 knockout cells, we demonstrate that PARP1\G972R negatively affects cellular endpoints, such as viability, cell cycle progression and genotoxic stress resistance. In contrast, PARP1\Y986S elicits only mild effects, suggesting that PAR branching compensates for short polymer length. Interestingly, PARP1\Y986H exhibits moderate beneficial effects on cell physiology. Furthermore, different PARP1 mutants have distinct effects on molecular processes, such as gene expression and protein localization dynamics of PARP1 itself, and of its downstream factor XRCC1. Finally, the biological relevance of PAR branching is emphasized by the fact that branching frequencies vary considerably during different phases of the DNA damage-induced PARylation reaction and between different mouse tissues. Taken together, this study reveals that PAR branching and chain length essentially affect cellular functions, which further supports the notion of a 'PAR code'.