Reber, Julia M.
Mechanistic insights into the three steps of poly(ADP-ribosylation) reversal
2021-12, Rack, Johannes Gregor Matthias, Liu, Qiang, Zorzini, Valentina, Voorneveld, Jim, Ariza, Antonio, Reber, Julia M., Krassnig, Sarah C., Mangerich, Aswin, Filippov, Dmitri V., Ahel, Ivan
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PAR) is a versatile and complex posttranslational modification composed of repeating units of ADP-ribose arranged into linear or branched polymers. This scaffold is linked to the regulation of many of cellular processes including the DNA damage response, alteration of chromatin structure and Wnt signalling. Despite decades of research, the principles and mechanisms underlying all steps of PAR removal remain actively studied. In this work, we synthesise well-defined PAR branch point molecules and demonstrate that PARG, but not ARH3, can resolve this distinct PAR architecture. Structural analysis of ARH3 in complex with dimeric ADP-ribose as well as an ADP-ribosylated peptide reveal the molecular basis for the hydrolysis of linear and terminal ADP-ribose linkages. We find that ARH3-dependent hydrolysis requires both rearrangement of a catalytic glutamate and induction of an unusual, square-pyramidal magnesium coordination geometry.
Unrestrained poly-ADP-ribosylation provides insights into chromatin regulation and human disease
2021-06, Prokhorova, Evgeniia, Agnew, Thomas, Wondisford, Anne R., Tellier, Michael, Kaminski, Nicole, Beijer, Danique, Reber, Julia M., Krassnig, Sarah C., Mangerich, Aswin, Ahel, Ivan
ARH3/ADPRHL2 and PARG are the primary enzymes reversing ADP-ribosylation in vertebrates, yet their functions in vivo remain unclear. ARH3 is the only hydrolase able to remove serine-linked mono(ADP-ribose) (MAR) but is much less efficient than PARG against poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) chains in vitro. Here, by using ARH3-deficient cells, we demonstrate that endogenous MARylation persists on chromatin throughout the cell cycle, including mitosis, and is surprisingly well tolerated. Conversely, persistent PARylation is highly toxic and has distinct physiological effects, in particular on active transcription histone marks such as H3K9ac and H3K27ac. Furthermore, we reveal a synthetic lethal interaction between ARH3 and PARG and identify loss of ARH3 as a mechanism of PARP inhibitor resistance, both of which can be exploited in cancer therapy. Finally, we extend our findings to neurodegeneration, suggesting that patients with inherited ARH3 deficiency suffer from stress-induced pathogenic increase in PARylation that can be mitigated by PARP inhibition.