Schildknecht, Stefan

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Stefan
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Chemical model systems for cellular nitros(yl)ation reactions

2009-08-15, Daiber, Andreas, Schildknecht, Stefan, Müller, Johanna, Kamuf, Jens, Bachschmid, Markus M., Ullrich, Volker

S-nitros(yl)ation belongs to the redox-based posttranslational modifications of proteins but the underlying chemistry is controversial. In contrast to current concepts involving the autoxidation of nitric oxide ((.)NO, nitrogen monoxide), we and others have proposed the formation of peroxynitrite (oxoperoxonitrate (1(-))as an essential intermediate. This requires low cellular fluxes of (.)NO and superoxide (UO2(-)), for which model systems have been introduced. We here propose two new systems for nitros(yl)ation that avoid the shortcomings of previous models. Based on the thermal decomposition of 3-morpholinosydnonimine,equal fluxes of (.)NO and UO2(-) were generated and modulated by the addition of (.)NO donors or Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase. As reactants for S-nitros(yl)ation, NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase and glutathione were employed, for which optimal S-nitros(yl)ation was observed at nanomolar fluxes of (.)NO and UO2(-) at a ratio of about 3:1. The previously used reactants phenol and diaminonaphthalene (C- and Nnitrosation)demonstrated potential participation of multiple pathways for nitros(yl)ation. According to our data, neither peroxynitrite nor autoxidation of UNO was as efficient as the 3 (.)NO/1 UO2(-) system in mediating S-nitros(yl)ation. In theory this could lead to an elusive nitrosonium (nitrosyl cation)-like species in the first step and to N2O3 in the subsequent reaction. Which of these two species or whether both together will participate in biological S-nitros(yl)ation remains to be elucidated. Finally, we developed several hypothetical scenarios to which the described (.)NO/UO2-flux model could apply, providing conditions that allow either direct electrophilic substitution at a thiolate or S-nitros(yl)ation via transnitrosation from S-nitrosoglutathione.

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Hydralazine is a powerful inhibitor of peroxynitrite formation as a possible explanation for its beneficial effects on prognosis in patients with congestive heart failure

2005-12-30, Daiber, Andreas, Oelze, Matthias, Coldewey, Meike, Kaiser, K., Huth, C., Schildknecht, Stefan, Bachschmid, Markus, Nazirisadeh, Y., Ullrich, Volker, Mülsch, Alexander, Münzel, Thomas, Tsilimingas, N.

The hemodynamic and anti-ischemic effects of nitroglycerin (GTN) are rapidly blunted as a result of the development of nitrate tolerance. Hydralazine has been shown to prevent tolerance in experimental and clinical studies, all of which may be at least in part secondary to antioxidant properties of this compound. The antioxidant effects of hydralazine were tested in cell free systems, cultured smooth muscle cells, isolated mitochondria, and isolated vessels. Inhibitory effects on the formation of superoxide and/or peroxynitrite formation were tested using lucigenin and L-012 enhanced chemiluminescence as well as DHE-fluorescence. The peroxynitrite scavenging properties were also assessed by inhibition of nitration of phenol. Prevention of impairment of NO downstream signaling and GTN bioactivation was determined by measurement of P-VASP (surrogate parameter for the activity of the cGMP-dependent kinase-I, cGK-I) and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) activity. Hydralazine dose-dependently decreased the chemiluminescence signal induced by peroxynitrite from SIN-1 and by superoxide from HX/XO in a cell free system, by superoxide in smooth muscle cells and mitochondria acutely challenged with GTN. Moreover, hydralazine inhibited the peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of phenols as well as proteins in smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent fashion. Finally, hydralazine normalized impaired cGK-I activity as well as impaired vascular ALDH-2 activity. Our results indicate that hydralazine is a highly potent radical scavenger. Thus, the combination with isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) will favorably influence the nitroso-redox balance in the cardiovascular system in patients with congestive heart failure and may explain at least in part the improvement of prognosis in patients with chronic congestive heart failure.

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Peroxynitrite provides the peroxide tone for PGHS-2-dependent prostacyclin synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells

2005-07, Schildknecht, Stefan, Bachschmid, Markus, Ullrich, Volker

Endotoxin-treated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were recently shown to release high amounts of prostacyclin (PGI2) dependent on the induction of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 (PGHS-2). In contrast to endothelial PGI2-synthase, for which nitration and inhibition by peroxynitrite was reported, addition of SIN-1 as a peroxynitrite-generating system did not cause inhibition but rather doubled PGI2 release by VSMC. The hypothesis of peroxynitrite supplementing an unsaturated peroxide tone for PGHS-2 was supported by H2O2 exerting the same effect. Studies performed with purified PGHS-2 revealed maximal elevation of enzyme activity in the presence of equimolar concentrations of *NO and *O2-, which together form peroxynitrite, while excessive production of either one radical was inhibitory. Most importantly, 6-keto-PGF1alpha formation by intact VSMC depended on a nearly equimolar generation of *NO and *O2- for providing the endogenous peroxide tone. These findings, together with the observation that an excess of exogenously added *NO, as well as uric acid as a scavenger of peroxynitrite potently reduced PGI2 release, underlined the role of peroxynitrite as the dominating and rate-limiting intracellular mediator of peroxide tone in VSMC. The results allow us to postulate a new cross-talk between the *NO and the prostanoid pathways with a crucial role for peroxynitrite in providing the peroxide tone for a continuous activation of PGHS-2.

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COX-2 inhibitors selectively block prostacyclin synthesis in endotoxin-exposed vascular smooth muscle cells

2004-04, Schildknecht, Stefan, Bachschmid, Markus, Baumann, Achim, Ullrich, Volker

High levels of prostacyclin (PGI2; measured as 6-keto-PGF1alpha) have been reported in patients under septic shock. Because this was at variance with our previous findings of nitration and inhibition of PGI2 synthase by endotoxin (LPS) in the endothelium, we examined the role of vascular smooth muscle as an alternative source of PGI2. Bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) in passage 1 contained high levels of PGI2 synthase but no activity and no detectable levels of COX-1 or COX-2. LPS exposure for 3 h caused COX-2 mRNA and protein levels to rise during 8 h together with a large increase in PGI2 synthase activity. In contrast, cytokines lead to only a moderate increase of both PGI2 and PGE2. Specific COX-2 inhibitors completely blocked PGI2 formation but PGE2 synthesis only partially. Unexpectedly, *NO formation remained low over 6-8 h, which may be a reason for the lack of nitration and inhibition of prostacyclin synthase in LPS exposed SMC. Our results can explain the clinical observation of severe hypotension in progressive stages of septic shock as a mechanism to compensate endothelial dysfunction. According to our data, the use of COX-2-specific inhibitors may not be advisable in septic patients. In contrast, administration of COX-1-specific blockers could prevent platelet aggregation during progressed stages of endotoxic shock.

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Peroxynitrite as regulator of vascular prostanoid synthesis

2009-04-15, Schildknecht, Stefan, Ullrich, Volker

Prostanoids and nitric oxide ((.)NO) are essential modulators of cardiovascular function in health and disease. Among the (.)NO-derived species formed in cells, peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is generally associated with its role as nitrating agent under severe pathophysiological conditions. This review, however, highlights a physiological role of peroxynitrite as endogenously formed regulator of prostanoid synthesis in the cardiovascular system. Prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 synthase (PGHS)(1), the central enzyme in the prostanoid pathway was observed to be nitrated and inactivated by high fluxes of peroxynitrite. In contrast, low nanomolar levels, that are formed endogenously in cardiovascular cells, turned out to activate PGHS and therefore prostanoid formation. A further increase in the rates of (.)NO and superoxide ((.)O2(-)) generation, that can be observed after exposure of vascular endothelial cells to endotoxin, results in enhanced levels of peroxynitrite that were shown to selectively nitrate and inactivate prostacyclin (PGI(2))-synthase as one of the dominating terminal prostanoid synthases in the cardiovascular system. As a consequence, accumulation of the intermediate PGH(2) occurs that is capable to activate the thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) receptor on the surface of smooth muscle cells to promote vasoconstriction. The nitration of PGI(2)-synthase thus functions as endogenous posttranslational switch that shuts off the PGI(2)-mediated vasodilatory, anti-aggregatory, and anti-adhesive conditions in order to support the transmigration of immune cells from the blood to the sites of an infection. As a third type of interaction between the (.)NO and the prostanoid pathways, an activation of nitrite by the endogenous peroxidase activity of PGHS can lead to an autocatalytic nitration and inactivation of PGHS under conditions of high nitrite and low arachidonic acid levels that mostly prevail in progressive activation stages in cell types that express inducible NOS-2 such as macrophages.

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Redox regulation of vascular prostanoid synthesis by the nitric oxide-superoxide system

2005-12-09, Bachschmid, Markus, Schildknecht, Stefan, Ullrich, Volker

Oxygen is involved in cell signaling through oxygenases and oxidases and this applies especially for the vascular system. Nitric oxide (*NO) and epoxyarachidonic acids are P450-dependent monooxygenase products and prostacyclin is formed via cyclooxygenase and a heme-thiolate isomerase. The corresponding vasorelaxant mechanisms are counteracted by superoxide which not only traps *NO but through the resulting peroxynitrite blocks prostacyclin synthase by nitration of an active site tyrosine residue. In a model of septic shock, this leads to vessel constriction by activation of the thromboxane A2-prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 receptor. This sequence of events is part of endothelial dysfunction in which the activated vascular smooth muscle counteracts and regenerates vessel tone by cyclooxygenase-2-dependent prostacyclin synthesis. Peroxynitrite was found to activate cyclooxygenases by providing the peroxide tone at nanomolar concentrations. Such new insights into the control of vascular function have allowed us to postulate a concept of redox regulation in which a progressive increase of superoxide production by NADPH-oxidase, mitochondria, xanthine oxidase, and even uncoupled NO-synthase triggers a network of signals originating from an interaction of *NO with superoxide.

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Endotoxin elicits nitric oxide release in rat but prostacyclin synthesis in human and bovine vascular smooth muscle cells

2005-02-04, Schildknecht, Stefan, Bachschmid, Markus, Weber, Klaus, Maass, Dierk, Ullrich, Volker

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure to cells and tissues can mimic the biochemical events leading to septic shock. Previous data demonstrated a massive upregulation of prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 synthase (PGHS-2), but not NO synthase-2 (NOS-2) in bovine smooth muscle cells (SMC) between 2 and 12 h of LPS exposure. This caused an abundant release of prostacyclin (PGI2) by constitutive PGI2-synthase as a counterregulation to a dysfunctional endothelium. We here report that human as well as bovine SMC mainly respond by the induction of PGHS-2 and the subsequent release of PGI2, whereas rat SMC exhibited a distinct induction of NOS-2 and released significantly higher amounts of *NO compared with cattle and human. The induction of either PGHS-2 or NOS-2 in the three different species investigated seems to be mutually exclusive in the time window of 2-24 h. This finding should be considered in the setup of experimental models for the investigation of septic shock.

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Autocatalytic tyrosine nitration of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

2006-02-03, Schildknecht, Stefan, Heinz, Kathrin, Daiber, Andreas, Hamacher, Jürg, Kavaklí, Cengiz, Ullrich, Volker, Bachschmid, Markus

In the literature, biological tyrosine nitrations have been reported to depend not only on peroxynitrite but also on nitrite/hydrogen peroxide linked to catalysis by myeloperoxidase. In endotoxin-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, we have detected a major nitrotyrosine positive protein band around 72 kDa and identified it as prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 (PGHS-2). Isolated PGHS-2 in absence of its substrate arachidonate was not only tyrosine-nitrated with peroxynitrite, but also with nitrite/hydrogen peroxide in complete absence of myeloperoxidase. Our data favor an autocatalytic activation of nitrite by PGHS-2 with a subsequent nitration of the essential tyrosine residue in the cyclooxygenase domain. Under inflammatory conditions, nitrite formed via NO-synthase-2 may therefore act as an endogenous regulator for PGHS-2 in stimulated macrophages. Nitration of PGHS-2 by the autocatalytic activation of nitrite further depends on the intracellular concentration of arachidonate since arachidonate reacted competitively with nitrite and could prevent PGHS-2 from nitration when excessively present.

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Redox regulation : a new challenge for pharmacology

2005-09-15, Frein, Daniel, Schildknecht, Stefan, Bachschmid, Markus, Ullrich, Volker

Redox signaling is evolving as a new field of biochemical and pharmacological research. Unlike oxidative stress which is characterized by a macroscopic shift in cellular redox potentials and usually accompanied by oxygen radical induced damage, redox regulation involves subtle and more chemically defined oxidations of short duration. Most important is the reductive component as a necessary part of a reversible regulatory process. Examples of redox regulation occur during early stages of the immune response, in hypoxia or in endothelial dysfunction. Persistent oxidative events together with a decline in the cellular reduction potential lead to oxidative stress as is seen in the pathophysiology of sepsis, reperfusion damage, atherosclerosis and diabetes. Oxidative signals involve superoxide and nitric oxide as the main players which form a system of oxidizing, nitrating or nitrosating species leading to posttranslational modifications of proteins. Modern techniques of immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry allow a correlation of protein modification, e.g., disulfide, S-oxide, S-nitroso or nitrotyrosine formation, with enzyme activities and cellular responses. In this commentary, examples of the control of prostanoid synthesis by the NO/O2- system are described. Redox regulation represents an interesting challenge for the development of drugs that modulate the oxidative trigger mechanisms or enforce the reductive pathways.

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Prostacyclin in the cardiovascular system : new aspects and open questions

2005, Klumpp, Georg, Schildknecht, Stefan, Nastainczyk, Wolfgang, Ullrich, Volker, Bachschmid, Markus

Several indications exist that prostacyclin (PGI(2)) release in the cardiovascular system might be affected by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-specific inhibitors. This could reflect an inhibition of PGI(2) synthesis in the endothelium although in these cells mainly COX-1 is expressed. Inflammation and stress induce COX-2 in smooth muscle cells which could have happened in patients with cardiac diseases. Herein, we show that also cardiomyocytes contain PGI(2) synthase in intercalated discs as a third source of PGI(2) in the cardiovascular system. Another aim of this study was to explain the finding that PGI(2) synthase in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated smooth muscle cells, in contrast to endothelial cells, is resistant to nitration and inhibition by peroxynitrite. By using redox cyclers, the nitration occurred and confirmed our previous hypothesis that a high peroxidative activity of such cells keeps peroxynitrite below the effective levels of 50 nM. Considering enhanced oxidative stress in aged vessels, we postulated and verified that endothelial dysfunction in aged vessels is due to nitration and inhibition of PGI(2) synthase. Such data underline the role of PGI(2) as a potent mediator for regaining and maintaining the normal resting state of cells in a COX-2 dependent fashion.