Rheology of colloidal and metallic glass formers
2020-07, Voigtmann, Thomas, Siebenbürger, Miriam, Amann, Christian P., Egelhaaf, Stefan U., Fritschi, Sebastian, Krüger, Matthias, Laurati, Marco, Mutch, Kevin J., Samwer, Konrad H.
Colloidal hard-sphere suspensions are convenient experimental models to understand soft matter, and also by analogy the structural-relaxation behavior of atomic or small-molecular fluids. We discuss this analogy for the flow and deformation behavior close to the glass transition. Based on a mapping of temperature to effective hard-sphere packing, the stress–strain curves of typical bulk metallic glass formers can be quantitatively compared with those of hard-sphere suspensions. Experiments on colloids give access to the microscopic structure under deformation on a single-particle level, providing insight into the yielding mechanisms that are likely also relevant for metallic glasses. We discuss the influence of higher-order angular signals in connection with non-affine particle rearrangements close to yielding. The results are qualitatively explained on the basis of the mode-coupling theory. We further illustrate the analogy of pre-strain dependence of the linear-elastic moduli using data on PS-PNiPAM suspensions.
Nonlinear mechanical response of supercooled melts under applied forces
2017-08-10, Cárdenas, Heliana, Frahsa, Fabian, Fritschi, Sebastian, Nicolas, Alexandre, Papenkort, Simon, Voigtmann, Thomas, Fuchs, Matthias
We review recent progress on a microscopic theoretical approach to describe the nonlinear response of glass-forming colloidal dispersions under strong external forcing leading to homogeneous and inhomogeneous flow. Using mode-coupling theory (MCT), constitutive equations for the rheology of viscoelastic shear-thinning fluids are obtained. These are, in suitably simplified form, employed in continuum fluid dynamics, solved by a hybrid-Lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm that was developed to deal with long-lasting memory effects. The combined microscopic theoretical and mesoscopic numerical approach captures a number of phenomena far from equilibrium, including the yielding of metastable states, process-dependent mechanical properties, and inhomogeneous pressure-driven channel flow.
Mode-coupling analysis of residual stresses in colloidal glasses
2014, Fritschi, Sebastian, Fuchs, Matthias, Voigtmann, Thomas
We present results from computer simulation and mode-coupling theory of the glass transition for the nonequilibrium relaxation of stresses in a colloidal glass former after the cessation of shear flow. In the ideal glass, persistent residual stresses are found that depend on the flow history. The partial decay of stresses from the steady state to this residual stress is governed by the previous shear rate. We rationalize this observation in a schematic model of mode-coupling theory. The results from Brownian-dynamics simulations of a glassy two-dimensional hard-disk system are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the theory.
Mermin–Wagner fluctuations in 2D amorphous solids
2017-02-21, Illing, Bernd, Fritschi, Sebastian, Kaiser, Herbert, Klix, Christian L., Maret, Georg, Keim, Peter
In a recent commentary, J. M. Kosterlitz described how D. Thouless and he got motivated to investigate melting and suprafluidity in two dimensions [Kosterlitz JM (2016) J Phys Condens Matter 28:481001]. It was due to the lack of broken translational symmetry in two dimensions-doubting the existence of 2D crystals-and the first computer simulations foretelling 2D crystals (at least in tiny systems). The lack of broken symmetries proposed by D. Mermin and H. Wagner is caused by long wavelength density fluctuations. Those fluctuations do not only have structural impact, but additionally a dynamical one: They cause the Lindemann criterion to fail in 2D in the sense that the mean squared displacement of atoms is not limited. Comparing experimental data from 3D and 2D amorphous solids with 2D crystals, we disentangle Mermin-Wagner fluctuations from glassy structural relaxations. Furthermore, we demonstrate with computer simulations the logarithmic increase of displacements with system size: Periodicity is not a requirement for Mermin-Wagner fluctuations, which conserve the homogeneity of space on long scales.
Stress-strain relations in bulk metallic glasses and colloidal dispersions
2013, Amann, Christian P., Ballauff, Matthias, Egelhaaf, Stefan U., Fritschi, Sebastian, Krüger, Matthias, Fuchs, Matthias, Laurati, Marco, Mutch, Kevin J., Samwer, Konrad, Siebenbürger, Miriam, Voigtmann, Thomas, Weysser, Fabian
A comparison is made between the nonlinear rheological response of bulk metallic glass formers and of colloidal dispersions. Stress-strain curves measured after switch-on of constant deformation rates are analyzed quantitatively using a schematic model of mode coupling theory generalized to homogeneous and incompressible flows. A mapping between metallic and dispersion rheology is possible when stresses are rescaled by an entropic scale, accumulated strains by geometrical factors, and rates by the intrinsic relaxation time. Exploiting this similarity and the possibility to directly observe individual colloidal particles, we investigate the structural distortions in the colloidal system using confocal microscopy. The distortions exhibit the (from elasticity theory) expected quadrupolar but also a strong isotropic component.
Strain pattern in supercooled liquids
2016-06-10T15:04:24Z, Illing, Bernd, Fritschi, Sebastian, Hajnal, David, Klix, Christian L., Keim, Peter, Fuchs, Matthias
Investigations of strain correlations at the glass transition reveal unexpected phenomena. The shear strain fluctuations show an Eshelby-strain pattern [∼cos(4θ)/r2], characteristic of elastic response, even in liquids, at long times. We address this using a mode-coupling theory for the strain fluctuations in supercooled liquids and data from both video microscopy of a two-dimensional colloidal glass former and simulations of Brownian hard disks. We show that the long-ranged and long-lived strain signatures follow a scaling law valid close to the glass transition. For large enough viscosities, the Eshelby-strain pattern is visible even on time scales longer than the structural relaxation time τ and after the shear modulus has relaxed to zero.